What is hemolytic uremic syndrome?
Hemolytic uremic syndrome, or HUS, is a medical condition that affects the smallest blood vessels in different organs causing them to be blocked. This leads to destruction of red blood cells (hemolytic anemia) and reduction in the clotting cells called platelets (thrombocytopenia). Organs most commonly affected include the kidneys (kidney failure) and the brain (confusion, seizures).
HUS was previously grouped with another diagnosis called thrombocytopenic thrombotic purpura (TTP) and referred to as “HUS/TTP” because they had similar symptoms. However, it is now known that they are separate diseases and should not be confused. The term “HUS” is not reserved for the process described below when it is caused by an infection of the GI tract with E coli. Other causes of this presentation are referred to as “atypical” HUS, and make up less than 10% of cases.
Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a common cause of acute kidney injury in children.
Who is most at risk for hemolytic uremic syndrome?
Those who are more likely to develop hemolytic uremic syndrome are:
- Children younger than five years old
- Individuals who eat undercooked meat or unpasteurized milk
- Individuals with direct contact with someone who has diarrhea due to one of the above infections
What causes hemolytic uremic syndrome?
Hemolytic uremic syndrome affects both children and adults who developed an infection of their digestive system by a specific strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli, O157:H7) that produces a chemical called shiga toxin or less commonly a strain of shigella called Shigella dysenteriae type 1. E. coli. Not all E. coli is toxic; in fact, there are types of _E. coli bacteria in the intestines that are good and actually help digestion. E. Coli O157:H7 _produces toxins in the intestines that cause diarrhea, travel into the bloodstream, destroy red blood cells, and damage the kidneys.
This toxic strain of E.coli enters the body when a child or adult eats spoiled, undercooked, or poorly processed foods, such as:
- Undercooked meat (usually ground beef)
- Milk or fruit juices that have not been pasteurized, a heating process to kill germs
- Unwashed, contaminated raw fruits and vegetables
Not washing hands well after contact with farm animals and exposure to unclean water in swimming pools or lakes can also be a source of E. coli O157:H7 bacteria.
The diarrhea caused by these bacteria is severe and often bloody.
What are the symptoms of hemolytic uremic syndrome?
Symptoms of E. coli gastroenteritis are:
- Diarrhea (usually bloody)
- Stomach pain
Having diarrhea does not mean you have HUS. There are many causes of bloody diarrhea. But any cause of severe diarrhea (when you cannot stay hydrated or it lasts longer than three days) or any case of bloody diarrhea requires medical attention.
Those people who go on to develop HUS have other symptoms as well. Because the toxins being released in the intestine begin to destroy red blood cells, some people may appear pale and have less energy as the disease progresses. The decrease in red blood cells prevents the body from getting enough oxygen. As the clotting cells called platelets are used up, some people may find that they bruise very easily. Patients may also develop a fever during this process.
If the disease continues to progress and the damaged red blood cells clog the tissue in the kidneys, waste is unable to be filtered and eliminated from the body. This can ultimately lead to acute kidney injury, which has the following signs and symptoms:
- Decreased urine output
- Blood in the urine
- Feeling sick from an increase in the blood toxin levels if this goes on for too long
If the blood vessels in the brain are involved, patients can become confused, sleepy or may even develop seizures.