Diabetes Prevention

Overview

What is pre-diabetes?

People with blood sugar levels higher than normal but lower than values for diabetes are considered to have pre-diabetes. Research shows that most people with pre-diabetes will develop Type 2 diabetes within 10 years.

It is recommended that you be tested for pre-diabetes if either of the following applies:

  • You are overweight and older than 45 years of age.
  • You are overweight and under the age of 45, but have a family history of diabetes, high blood pressure, or high blood lipids (fat); are African-American, Native-American, Hispanic, or Asian; have a history of gestational diabetes; or have given birth to a baby weighing 9 pounds or more.

Diagnosis and Tests

How is pre-diabetes diagnosed?

A fasting blood sugar test is performed after you have had nothing by mouth (eating or drinking) for 10-12 hours. Normal fasting blood sugar is between 70 and 99 mg/dl for people who do not have diabetes. A normal random blood sugar result is between 70 and 140. The diagnosis of pre-diabetes is made when two blood tests show that your fasting blood sugar level is between 100 and 125 mg/dl, or if two random (anytime) blood sugar tests are greater than or equal to 140, but below 200.

Fasting Glucose Test

  • Normal: Less than 100
  • Pre-Diabetes: 100-125
  • Diabetes: 126 or higher

Random (Anytime) Glucose Test

  • Normal: Less than 140
  • Pre-Diabetes: 140-199
  • Diabetes: Greater than 200

A1C

  • Normal: Less than 5.7%
  • Pre-Diabetes: 5.7-6.4%
  • Diabetes: Greater than 6.5%

Source: American Diabetes Association 2013

Management and Treatment

Making healthy changes

Making healthy changes in your diet and physical activity has been shown to delay or prevent diabetes and other health problems.

How is pre-diabetes treated?

The first step is to lose weight. You can achieve this through diet and increased physical activity. Also, talk with your doctor and other health care professionals about your treatment plan and goals.

Outlook / Prognosis

Managing your pre-diabetes

You hold the key to managing your pre-diabetes by:

  • Planning what you eat and following a balanced meal plan
  • Increasing physical activity
  • Taking your medicine, if prescribed, and closely following the guidelines on how and when to take it
  • Monitoring your blood sugar as prescribed by your doctor
  • Keeping your appointments with your health care provider
  • Monitoring your blood pressure (Your target blood pressure is less than 130/80.)

Living With

Can Prediabetes Put Your Vision at Risk?

Just as diabetes can increase your risk of developing blindness, having prediabetes can increase your risk of vision loss, too.

Prediabetes means that your blood sugar level is higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.

Prediabetes can cause retinopathy, which is changes to the structure of the eye that can result in vision loss. Having retinopathy is the single biggest predictor for vision loss.

But many people are unaware they have prediabetes. Most also don’t notice retinopathy developing until it’s well-advanced and their vision becomes blurry. But retinopathy has the best chance for treatment success if detected early and treated.

It’s important to get a dilated eye exam every year. And ask your primary doctor about testing for prediabetes if you are overweight and older than 45.

Cholesterol Guidelines

  • Total cholesterol: Less than 200 mg/dl
  • LDL cholesterol: Less than 100 mg/dl
  • HDL cholesterol: Greater than 45 mg/dl in males; Greater than 55 mg/dl in females
  • Triglycerides: Less than 150 mg/dl

Source: American Diabetes Association 2013

If you have pre-diabetes, you can slow the progression to Type 2 diabetes by 54% by following a healthy diet, losing weight (if applicable), and exercising.

Source: American Diabetes Association.

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy