Prostate Cancer: Glossary
(Also Called 'Prostate Cancer: Glossary - Resources')
5-alpha-reductase inhibitors: a class of oral medications or pills that interfere with the conversion within the prostate of the male sex hormone testosterone (produced by the testicles) to a more potent form of the hormone (known as dihydrotestosterone). Proscar (finasteride) and Avodart (dutasteride) are two drugs within this class. These drugs are commonly prescribed to alleviate voiding symptoms in men with an enlarged prostate. There is evidence that taking these drugs may reduce a man’s risk of developing prostate cancer, though they may increase a man’s risk of developing an aggressive form of prostate cancer.
Abscess: a localized collection of pus caused by a bacterial infection
Acid phosphatase: an enzyme produced only in the prostate. High levels may indicate the spread of prostate cancer.
Acute: abrupt onset that is usually severe; happens for a limited period of time
Acute bacterial prostatitis: also called infectious prostatitis; a bacterial infection of the prostate gland that causes inflammation and swelling of the prostate. Acute bacterial prostatitis requires prompt treatment, as the condition can lead to cystitis, abscesses in the prostate, or blocked urine flow in extreme cases. In some cases, acute prostatitis requires hospitalization.
Active surveillance: A treatment approach in men with low-risk prostate cancer that involves close monitoring of man’s disease with regular clinical assessments, laboratory tests, radiology imaging, and/or prostate biopsy to determine if his cancer is stable or growing. Treatment is usually recommended to men whose cancers are growing or becoming clinically a higher risk cancer.
Adjuvant therapy: treatment provided in addition to the primary treatment to prevent cancer recurrence
Adrenal glands: glands that sit on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands make and release hormones such as epinephrine (adrenaline), which raises heart rate and blood pressure; norepinephrine, which causes constriction of blood vessels; and steroid hormones, which help reduce inflammation and control how the body utilizes fat, protein, carbohydrates, and minerals. Other steroid hormones produced in the adrenal gland are called androgens, or male sex hormones.
Adverse effect: negative or harmful effect
Alpha-adrenergic blocker: class of drugs used to treat benign (noncancerous) prostate enlargement. These medications tend to relax the prostate muscles and improve urine flow. They are also used to treat hypertension.
Analgesic: medicine used to relieve pain
Androgen: a hormone, such as testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, 5-dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione, responsible for the development of male sex characteristics
Anemia: a condition in which blood is deficient in one of three ways: not enough red blood cells, hemoglobin, or total volume of blood. Hemoglobin is a substance in the red blood cells that enables the blood to transport oxygen through the body.
Antegrade ejaculation: normal forward ejaculation
Antiandrogen drug: any medication that reduces or blocks the normal activity of an androgen hormone
Antibiotic: medication used to treat bacterial infection
Anti-inflammatory: medication used to reduce pain, swelling, or other irritation, often caused by prostatitis
Antimicrobial: a drug that kills bacteria or prevents them from multiplying. Antibiotics are naturally occurring antimicrobials. Antimicrobial medications are used to treat acute infectious and chronic prostatitis.
Antibodies: proteins produced by the body to protect itself from foreign substances (such as bacteria or viruses)
Antigens: Foreign substances that cause an immune response in the body. The body produces antibodies to fight antigens.
Antispasmodics: drugs that help decrease involuntary muscle spasms that may occur in the bladder
Asymptomatic: no symptoms or no clear sign that disease is present
Atrophy: wasting of tissue or organ, caused by disease or lack of use (as in muscle atrophy). The testicles can become atrophic due to disease, cancer, or abnormal development.
Azoospermia: the absence of sperm in the ejaculate
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): also known as benign (noncancerous) enlargement of the prostate. Almost all men with normal hormonal function (those who produce the male hormone testosterone) will develop some enlargement of the prostate as they age.
Benign tumor: a noncancerous growth that does not spread to nearby tissues or other parts of the body
Biofeedback: a method of learning to modify a particular bodily function by monitoring it with the aid of an electronic device that may produce sight or sound signals. Pelvic floor biofeedback may be recommended for some patients who have an underlying pelvic floor neuromuscular dysfunction.
Biological therapy: treatment to stimulate or restore the ability of the immune system to fight infection and disease. Also called immunotherapy.
Biopsy: removal of a sample of tissue for study, usually under a microscope. A prostate biopsy is a procedure in which a physician uses ultrasound to guide a small needle into areas of the prostate where abnormalities are detected. The needle is used to collect cells or tissue samples of the prostate. Usually 10 to 18 biopsies are taken to sample various areas of the prostate. The tissue samples are then analyzed in a laboratory to help physicians diagnose a variety of disorders and diseases in the prostate.
Brachytherapy: Also called image-directed irradiation, a form of radiation therapy for prostate cancer. During the procedure, radioactive seeds (iodine-125) are implanted into the prostate gland under ultrasound guidance. The number of seeds and their locations are determined by a computer-generated treatment plan for each patient. The seeds remain in place permanently and become inactive after about 10 months. This technique allows for delivery of a high dose of radiation to the prostate with limited damage to surrounding tissues.
Cancer: a general term for more than 100 diseases in which there is an uncontrolled, abnormal growth of cells. Cancer cells can spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body.
Cannulas: tubes that hold an instrument called a laparoscope (see below) and other instruments and allow access to the abdominal cavity for performance of laparoscopic surgery. These are also called "ports."
Carcinoma: malignant (cancerous) growth that begins in the lining or covering of an organ and tends to invade surrounding tissue and metastasize (spread) to other regions of the body
Carcinoma in situ: cancer that involves only the tissue in which it began; it has not spread to other tissues.
CAT scan: an X-ray technique using computer technology to produce a film showing a detailed cross-section of tissue. A CAT scan may be recommended so that your doctor can check for swollen or enlarged lymph nodes, which might mean the cancer has spread. Generally, a CAT scan is used only if the cancer is large, of a high grade, or associated with a very high PSA level.
Chemoprevention: a treatment approach that uses oral medications or pills to prevent the development of cancer in patients at risk.
Chemotherapy: in cancer treatment, the use of drugs whose main effect is either to kill or slow the growth of rapidly multiplying cells. Chemotherapy usually includes a combination of drugs, since this is more effective than a single drug given alone. There are many drug combinations used to treat prostate cancer.
Chronic: persisting over a long period of time
Chronic prostatitis: Also known as chronic pelvic pain syndrome.There are many causes of this condition, which may include inflammation or, less commonly, infection from bacteria or other microorganisms. Men with this condition may complain of pelvic, perineal, or penile pain or pain with urination. They may also complain of voiding symptoms such as frequent urination or uncontrollable urge to urinate. In the rare cases of chronic prostatitis due to bacterial infection, it may cause recurrent bouts of bladder and urinary infection. Treatment is directed at relieving the symptoms and/or the underlying cause.
Clear margins: areas of normal tissue that surround cancerous tissue, as seen during a microscopic examination
Clinical trial: a research program conducted with patients to evaluate a new medical treatment, drug, or device. The purpose of clinical trials is to find new and improved methods of treating different diseases and special conditions.
Combined hormonal therapy or maximal androgen deprivation: a medical treatment method that combines suppression of testosterone production and androgen production by the adrenal glands (see also: Hormone therapy) and a medication that reduces or blocks the normal activity of an androgen hormone (see also: Antiandrogen drug).
Contraindication: a factor that makes use of a drug or other treatment inadvisable
Cryobank: a place where cells, sperm, or embryos are frozen and stored
Cryopreservation: the process of freezing and storing sperm or embryos for later use
Cryotherapy: a treatment for men with prostate cancer (and those with recurrent prostate cancer after radiation therapy) that involves freezing and thawing of the prostate in a minor outpatient surgical procedure using prostate ultrasound. This technique enables freezing and thawing of the prostate to destroy prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue without affecting the vital strictures that surround the prostate gland, such as the bladder, rectum, and urinary sphincter muscle.
Cystectomy: removal of the bladder with surgery
Cystitis: inflammation of the bladder, which may be caused by infection. Also called interstitial cystitis
Cystoscopy: a procedure in which a tube is inserted into the urethra through the opening at the end of the penis. It allows the doctor to visually examine the complete length of the urethra and the bladder for polyps, strictures, abnormal growths, and other problems. Also called cystourethroscopy
Cytoscope: tube-like device containing a light and viewing lens. A cytoscope is inserted into the urethra to examine the urethra, bladder, and prostate.
Digital rectal exam (DRE): a screening test used to detect prostate cancer in its early stages. Because the prostate is an internal organ, the physician cannot look at it directly. The prostate lies in front of the rectum, and the doctor can feel it by inserting a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum. The doctor will feel the prostate for hard, lumpy, or abnormal areas and to determine whether the prostate is enlarged.
Dysuria: painful urination
Ejaculate: fluid and semen (which contains sperm) ejected from the penis during male orgasm
Ejaculatory duct: tube in the body where sperm are deposited into the urethra
Electrovaporation: a surgical procedure that uses electrical current to destroy excess prostate tissue
Enuresis: involuntary urination. It is also termed "urinary incontinence."
Epididymis: a long tube-like coiled structure in which sperm collect, mature, and pass. The epididymis is located above and behind the testicles. Mature sperm leave the epididymis through the vas deferens when they are ejaculated or reabsorbed by the body.
Epididymitis: inflammation of the epididymis
Epidural catheter: a small tube passed into the space between the spinal cord and spinal column. Pain medication can be delivered through the tube.
Focal therapy: a treatment approach for men with localized prostate cancer that targets the cancerous regions of the prostate (typically using cryotherapy or brachytherapy) without treating the prostate regions that do not have evidence of cancer. While this treatment approach is commonly applied to cancers of the breast and kidney, it is still considered an experimental treatment for prostate cancer.
Flow study: a test that measures the flow of urine
Gene: the basic unit of heredity found in all cells
Gleason score: a rating system that identifies the aggressiveness of a cancer. A Gleason score of less than 6 is considered less aggressive, and a score greater than 7 is considered more aggressive.
Grade: a labeling system indicating how quickly a cancer is growing
Hormones: chemicals produced by glands in the body. Hormones control the actions of certain cells or organs.
Hormone therapy (also hormonal therapy): the use of hormone medications to treat cancer patients by removing, blocking, or adding to the effects of a hormone on an organ or part of the body. Hormone therapy may also include surgical removal of the testicles to prevent male hormones from further stimulating the growth of prostate cancer.
Immune system: the body's natural defense system against infection or disease
Impotence: also called erectile dysfunction. A man's inability to develop or sustain an erection satisfactory for sexual intercourse. Though prostate cancer is not a cause of impotence, some treatments for the disease can cause impotence or erectile dysfunction.
Inflammation: increased blood flow in response to infection and certain chronic conditions. One of the body's defense mechanisms. Symptoms of inflammation include redness, swelling, pain, and heat.
Interstitial Laser Coagulation (ILC): a technique used to treat an enlarged prostate. This technique uses two lasers to deliver heat to the interior of the prostate. A specially designed laser fiber is inserted into the prostate using instruments placed in the urethra. The procedure is usually done in the operating room, under local anesthesia to numb the area.
Intracavernous injection therapy: injection of medication into the penis to treat impotence. This type of therapy can be effective for patients who have undergone radical prostatectomy (removal of the prostate) or who have received radiation therapy to treat prostate cancer. The overall success rate with injection therapy is about 60%-80%.
Intraurethral therapy (Muse): medication taken as a suppository placed in the urinary tube (urethra) to treat impotence. The medicine relaxes the muscle in the erection chamber, allowing improved blood flow into the penis.
Incontinence: loss of urinary control. Incontinence may be complete or partial and can result from prostate surgery or radiation therapy for prostate cancer.
Laparoscopic surgery (laparoscopy): a method of surgery that is less invasive than open surgery. Tiny incisions are made to create a passageway for a special instrument called a laparoscope. This thin telescope-like instrument has a miniature video camera and light source to transmit images to a video monitor. The surgeon watches the video screen while performing the procedure with small instruments that pass through small tubes placed in the incisions.
Laser surgery: destruction of tissue using a small, powerful, highly focused beam of light
Local therapy: treatment that affects cells in the tumor and the area close to it
Localized cancer: cancer that hasn't spread to other parts of the body. Localized prostate cancer is confined to the prostate.
Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) analog: a drug that blocks the production of testosterone by the testes to help stop tumor growth
Lymph: clear fluid that travels through the lymphatic system and carries cells that help fight infection and disease
Lymph nodes: small glands located in many areas of the body that help defend the body against harmful foreign substances
Lymphatic system: a circulatory system that includes an extensive network of lymph vessels and lymph nodes throughout the body. The lymphatic system helps coordinate the immune system's function to protect the body from foreign substances.
MRI: a test that produces images of the body without the use of X-rays. MRI uses a large magnet, radio waves, and a computer to produce these images. MRI may be used to examine the prostate and nearby lymph nodes to distinguish between benign (noncancerous) and malignant (cancerous) lesions.
Male infertility: diminished or absent ability to produce offspring
Malignant: cancerous; can spread to other parts of the body
Metastasize: to spread from one part of the body to another
Nonbacterial chronic prostatitis: the type of chronic prostatitis that occurs when no definite infectious cause can be identified. People with nonbacterial prostatitis often have a number of white blood cells (associated with infection) in their urine, but no bacteria are found.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): a class of drugs effective in reducing inflammation and pain without steroids. Examples of these drugs include aspirin, naproxen, and ibuprofen.
Obstruction: a clog or blockage that prevents fluid from flowing easily
Occult blood: Blood in the stool that is not always visible to the naked eye. This type of bleeding is detected by performing a laboratory test on a stool sample.
Oncologist: a physician or surgeon who specializes in the treatment of cancer. Oncologists have a thorough knowledge of how cancers behave and grow. This knowledge is used to calculate your risk of recurrence as well as the possible need for and benefits of additional or adjuvant therapy (such as chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or radiation therapy). Your oncologist generally manages your overall medical care and monitors your general health during your course of treatment. He or she checks your progress frequently, reviews your lab and X-ray results, and coordinates your medical care before and after your course of treatment.
Oncologist: medical: a doctor who specializes in the medical treatment of cancer using chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, immunotherapy, and other treatments such as targeted biologic therapy. A medical oncologist is often involved in the treatment of cancers that are at risk of spreading (often called recurrence or metastasis) and metastatic cancers.
Oncologist, radiation: a doctor trained in cancer treatment using radiation therapy
Oncologist, surgical: a doctor who performs biopsies and other surgical procedures specifically related to cancer. A surgical oncologist who treats cancers of the prostate, bladder, kidney and testis is also known as a urologic oncologist. Surgical oncologists may also treat cancers with hormonal therapy and immunotherapy.
Orchiectomy: surgical removal of the testes
Nomograms: sophisticated prediction tools that provide the physician and patient with accurate probabilities or risk estimates to guide treatment decision-making
Palpation: a simple technique in which a doctor presses on the surface of the body to feel the organs or tissues underneath
Patient-controlled analgesia: a method of administering pain medication that is activated by the patient
Pathologist: a doctor who specializes in analyzing tissue samples. In the case of prostate cancer, the doctor can examine prostate tissue samples under a microscope to detect the cellular makeup of the tumor, whether the cancer is localized or has the potential to spread, and how quickly it is growing. Pathologists can detect subtle differences in cancer cells that help your surgeon and oncologist confirm the diagnosis.
Perineum: the area between the scrotum and anus
Permanent radioactive seed implants: a form of radiation therapy for prostate cancer. During the procedure, radioactive implants (iodine-125) are implanted into the prostate gland using ultrasound guidance. The number of implants and where they are placed is determined by a computer-generated treatment plan individualized for each patient. The implants remain in place permanently, and become inactive after about 10 months. This technique allows for delivery of a high dose of radiation to the prostate with limited effect to surrounding tissues (see also: Brachytherapy).
Peyronie's disease: a condition that causes buildup of plaques and scarring along the walls of the erectile tissue of the penis. This condition causes curvature of the penis, especially when erect.
Platelets: substance in blood that helps prevent bleeding by causing blood clots to form at the site of an injury
Post-void residual test: a test often performed with ultrasound imaging to detect how much urine is left in the bladder after the patient completes urination
Priapism: persistent, painful, and unwanted erection. This condition requires immediate medical attention.
Prognosis: the probable outcome or course of a disease; the chance of recovery
Prostate: a muscular, walnut-sized gland that surrounds part of the urethra, the tube that transports urine and sperm out of the body. The prostate is part of the male reproductive system. It secretes seminal fluid, a milky substance that combines with sperm produced in the testicles to form semen. The muscles in the prostate push semen through the urethra and out of the penis during sexual climax.
Prostate cancer: the most common form of cancer in American men and the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Cells in the body normally divide (reproduce) only when new cells are needed. Sometimes, cells will divide for no reason, creating a mass of tissue called a tumor. Tumors can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Prostate cancer is a malignant tumor.
Prostate enlargement: See benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA): a blood test used to detect elevated levels of this protein, produced by the prostate, which can indicate prostate cancer or other prostate diseases
Prostate massage: during a digital rectal examination, the doctor may massage, or "strip," the prostate to force prostatic fluid out of the gland and into the urethra. This fluid sample is then examined under a microscope for signs of inflammation and infection.
Prostatic ducts: group of 20 to 30 tubes inside the prostate that collect and transport prostatic fluid to the ejaculatory ducts
Prostatic fluid: fluid produced by the prostate that makes up a portion of the semen. It is thought that the prostatic fluid contains a chemical substance that contributes to the viability of sperm for reproduction.
Prostatitis, Acute: a sudden bacterial infection of the prostate gland characterized by inflammation of the prostate is called acute bacterial or infectious prostatitis. Acute bacterial prostatitis requires prompt treatment to prevent other health problems. Chronic (long-lasting) prostatitis is the most common form of this disease, usually caused by bacteria (see also: Chronic Prostatitis).
Prostatodynia: pain in the prostate
Prostatectomy: See radical prostatectomy.
Prosthesis: an artificial replacement of a part of the body. A penile prosthesis may be considered if the patient has had erectile dysfunction for about one year following cancer treatment and nonsurgical therapy has either failed or has been found to be unacceptable. A prosthesis is an effective form of therapy in many patients, but it requires an operation in which a device is implanted into the penis. Surgery can cause complications, such as mechanical failure or infection, which may require removal of the prosthesis and re-operation.
Pulse oximetry: photoelectric device that measures the percent of oxygenation in the blood using a clip on the finger. Also measures the heart rate.
Radiation therapy: a form of cancer treatment that uses high levels of radiation energy to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing and dividing while minimizing damage to healthy cells.
Radical prostatectomy: surgery in which the entire prostate gland plus some tissue around it are removed. Radical prostatectomy is used most often if the cancer is thought not to have spread outside of the gland. Radical prostatectomy may be performed through an incision above the pubic bone (known as open or retropubic prostatectomy), through an incision in the perineum (known as perineal prostatectomy), and by using small incisions in the abdomen using a laparoscope (known as laparoscopic or robotic prostatectomy).
Radiology: a branch of medicine that uses radioactive substances and visual devices to diagnose and treat a wide variety of diseases
Radiologist: a doctor who reads and interprets X-rays and other radiographic images
Recurrence: the return of a disease after a period of remission
Remission: disappearance of any evidence of cancer. A remission can be temporary or permanent.
Renal: relating to the kidneys
Renal threshold: the point at which the blood is holding so much of a substance, such as glucose, that the kidneys allow the excess to "spill" into the urine. This is also called "kidney threshold," "kidney spilling point" or "leak point."
Renovascular disorders: diseases of the blood vessels of the kidney
Retrograde ejaculation: ejaculation of semen backward into the bladder instead of through the urethra and out of the penis
Risk factor: a factor that increases a person's chance of developing a disease or predisposes a person to a certain condition
Robotic surgery: a form of laparoscopic surgery that uses a robotic machine (known as the daVinci Surgical System) to assist the surgeon. The laparoscope and the surgical instruments are attached to a robotic system that the surgeon controls at a video console in the operating room. Robotic surgery is commonly used to perform radical prostatectomy as well as operations to treat bladder and kidney cancer.
Scrotum: the sac of skin that contains the testes
Semen: the fluid, containing sperm, that comes out of the penis during sexual arousal
Semen analysis: test that provides information about the number and quality of the sperm
Seminal vesicles: small glands near the prostate that produce some of the fluid for semen
Sentinel lymph node: the first lymph node to which a tumor drains, making it the first place where cancer is likely to spread
Sexually transmitted disease (STD): a disease that is spread by having sex with someone who has an STD. You can get an STD from sexual activity that involves the mouth, anus, or vagina. STDs are serious illnesses that require treatment. Some STDs, like AIDS, cannot be cured and are deadly.
Sildenafil: See Viagra.
Sperm: the microscopic cells produced in the testicles and transported by semen to aid in reproduction
Stage: a labeling system indicating how far the cancer has spread, or the extent of the cancer. The stage of prostate cancer depends on the size of the cancer and whether it has spread from its original site to other parts of the body.
Systemic therapy: treatment that reaches and affects cells all over the body
Testes (testicles): a pair of rounded glands that lie in the scrotum and produce male cells (sperm) for reproduction and the hormone testosterone
Testosterone: the male sex hormone produced by the testes
Thermotherapy: See transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT).
Transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP): surgical treatment for benign prostate enlargement. An instrument passed through the urethra makes cuts in the prostate to clear any blockages, but does not remove tissue.
Transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT): also called transurethral hyperthermia. Used to treat benign enlargement of the prostate. During this procedure, microwave energy delivers temperatures above 45 degrees C (113 degrees Fahrenheit) to the prostate by way of an antenna positioned in the prostate with a special catheter.
Transrectal ultrasonography: See ultrasound, prostate.
Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP): surgical removal of the tissue blocking the urethra, with no external skin incision. This is the most common treatment for symptomatic benign enlargement of the prostate.
Trocar: sharp, pointed instrument used to make a puncture incision in the abdominal wall. Used for placement of cannulas or ports.
Tumor: an abnormal mass of tissue
Ultrasound: a test used to diagnose a wide range of diseases and conditions in which high-frequency sound waves, inaudible to the human ear, are transmitted through body tissues. The echoes vary according to the tissue density. The echoes are recorded and translated into video or photographic images that are displayed on a monitor.
Ultrasound, prostate (also called transrectal ultrasound): a procedure in which a probe about the size of a finger is inserted a short distance into the rectum. This probe produces harmless high-frequency sound waves, inaudible to the human ear, that bounce off the surface of the prostate. The sound waves are recorded and transformed into video or photographic images of the prostate gland. The probe can provide images at different angles to help the doctor estimate the size of the prostate and detect any abnormal growths or lesions.
Urethra: the tube that carries urine (from the bladder) and semen (from the prostate and other sex glands) out through the tip of the penis
Urethral stricture: a narrowing or blockage of the canal leading to the bladder, discharging the urine externally
Urethritis: inflammation of the urethra; may be caused by infection
Urinalysis: a test in which a urine sample is evaluated to detect abnormalities. Urinalysis is important for diagnosing prostatitis, urinary infections, bladder and kidney cancer, diabetes, and other conditions.
Urinary catheter: a thin, flexible, plastic tube that is inserted into the bladder to drain urine
Urinary tract: the path that urine takes as it leaves the body. It includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
Urinary tract infection: an infection of the urinary tract, usually caused by bacteria. The infection most often occurs in the urethra and bladder. It can also travel from the bladder into the ureter and kidneys.
Urination: discharge of liquid waste from the body
Urologist: a doctor who specializes in treatment of the urinary tract for men and women, and the genital organs for males
Vacuum erection device: a cylinder that is placed over the penis to treat impotence. The air is pumped out of the cylinder, which draws blood into the penis and causes an erection. The erection is maintained by slipping a band off the base of the cylinder and onto the base of the penis.
Viagra: an oral drug or pill used to treat erectile dysfunction (also known as sildenafil). Other drugs like Viagra include Cialis (tadalafil) and Levitra (vardenafil).
Void: to urinate
Voiding dysfunction: difficulty urinating
Watchful waiting: an approach used for localized, slow-growing prostate cancer involving regular checkups instead of immediate treatment
X-ray: high-energy radiation used in low doses to diagnose diseases, and in high doses to treat cancer
- National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment. www.cancer.gov/. Accessed December 15, 2011.
- Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Treating Prostate Cancer: A Guide for Men With Localized Prostate Cancer. effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/. Accessed December 15, 2011.
- U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Review of the Evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/. Accessed November 29, 2011.
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This information is provided by the Cleveland Clinic and is not intended to replace the medical advice of your doctor or health care provider. Please consult your health care provider for advice about a specific medical condition. This document was last reviewed on: 11/30/2011…#8629