End-Stage Renal (Kidney) Disease
What is end-stage renal disease?
End-stage renal (kidney) disease is the last stage of long-term kidney disease. At this point, either kidney dialysis or a kidney transplant is needed in order for a person to survive. More people in the U.S. are developing end-stage renal disease due to increasing numbers of people who have diabetes.
What causes end-stage renal disease?
End-stage renal disease and milder forms of kidney disease can be caused by several conditions, common ones are:
- High blood pressure
- Severe infections
- Polycystic kidney disease (numerous kidney cysts)
- Birth defects or problems with the development of the kidneys
- Kidney stones
- Enlarged prostate causing obstruction
- Multiple urinary infections
- Autoimmune disease
- Cardiovascular disease
- Amyloidosis or multiple myeloma
What are the symptoms of end-stage renal disease?
- Too much or too little urine production
- Swelling, often in lower part of legs, ankles, and feet
- Nausea and vomiting
- Lack of hunger
- Muscle jerks
- Shortness of breath
- Problems sleeping or too much sleeping
- Metallic taste of food
- Itching all over body