What are nocturnal leg cramps?
Nocturnal leg cramps are pains that occur in the legs during the night. They usually cause awakenings from sleep, but they may also occur while awake at night during periods of inactivity. These cramps mostly happen in the calf muscles but can also occur in the thighs or feet. Nocturnal leg cramps are quite painful and cause the affected muscles to feel tight or knotted. Symptoms may last from several seconds up to several minutes. There might also be muscle soreness after the cramp goes away. Nocturnal leg cramps are more common in adults over age 50, but they also do occur in younger adults and children. Both men and women seem to be equally affected.
Who gets nocturnal leg cramps?
Anyone can get these types of cramps. However, they tend to be found more often in people who are middle-aged or older.
Are nocturnal leg cramps the same as restless legs syndrome?
No. While both types of leg disturbances tend to happen at night, or at rest, restless leg syndrome does not cause pain or cramping. Restless legs syndrome is more of a discomfort, or a crawling sensation, that results in a desire to move the legs. While moving, the restlessness is relieved, but the discomfort returns when movement stops. This does not happen with nocturnal leg cramps where the tightened muscle needs to be actively stretched out for relief.
What causes nocturnal leg cramps?
The cause of nocturnal leg cramps is often times unknown, but some cases have been linked to:
- Sitting for long periods of time
- Over-exertion of the muscles
- Standing or working on concrete floors
- Sitting improperly
Nocturnal leg cramps have also been linked to certain medical conditions and medications. These include:
- Dehydration/electrolyte imbalances
- Parkinson’s disease
- Neuromuscular disorders (neuropathy, myopathy, motor neuron disease)
- Structural disorders (flat feet)
- Endocrine disorders (diabetes, hypothyroidism)
- Diuretics, statins, beta agonists