Phalloplasty is surgery to repair the penis after a serious injury or to fix a congenital condition. In transgender men, the procedure constructs a functional penis. It is a complex surgery that typically requires multiple procedures.
Phalloplasty is a type of penis surgery. For some people, it involves constructing a new penis (neopenis).
Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy
People with gender dysphoria undergoing female-to-male (FTM) gender confirmation surgery. It’s also for those who have:
Congenital (present at birth) conditions, such as:
Experienced trauma affecting their penis, including:
During phalloplasty, surgeons take a large section of skin and tissue (flap) from another area of your body. After rolling it to form a shaft, they attach it to the groin.
Treatment may include additional procedures to:
Tissue flaps may come from your:
Before surgery, you'll undergo assessments and testing. These may include:
Before phalloplasty, you might undergo a separate FTM bottom surgery. This surgery may combine multiple procedures, such as:
Some individuals might choose to keep parts of the female genitalia.
In addition to FTM bottom surgery, individuals may wish to pursue FTM top surgery. This procedure removes breast tissue to create a more masculine-looking chest.
One of the main benefits of phalloplasty is relief from physical and emotional challenges. Results include a natural-looking penis that may be capable of erections. When part of transgender surgery, phalloplasty helps you achieve your desired gender identity.
Other benefits depend on which options you choose:
Phalloplasty is a complex penis surgery. Many people experience complications. But going to an experienced surgeon lowers this risk. Complications are less likely to affect your long-term results when caught early.
Complications of genital reconstruction and FtM bottom surgery may include:
After surgery, you’ll need to take it easy. Recovery includes:
Achieving the full function of your penis takes time — in some cases, a year or more. It may require multiple surgeries. The length of your recovery depends in part on whether surgery involves:
Your care should include follow-up appointments to track your recovery. Contact your healthcare provider immediately if you experience:
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Phalloplasty is a type of surgery to repair or construct a penis. A person may wish to pursue this type of penis surgery for many reasons. These include trauma, congenital conditions and gender confirmation. If phalloplasty is right for you, work with your surgeon to learn about your options. You may need more than one procedure to achieve your desired results. You should also be aware that complications are common. Seeing an experienced surgeon lowers this risk.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 06/10/2021.
Learn more about our editorial process.