What is LDL?

LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein. It’s a type of lipoprotein found in your blood.

Lipoproteins are particles made of lipids (fats) and proteins that carry fats through your bloodstream. Fats, because of their structure, can’t move through your blood on their own. So, lipoproteins serve as vehicles that carry fats to various cells in your body. LDL particles contain a large amount of cholesterol and a smaller amount of proteins.

What is LDL cholesterol?

Most people use “LDL” and “LDL cholesterol” interchangeably. LDL cholesterol has a reputation for being the “bad cholesterol.” But that’s only part of the story. LDL cholesterol itself isn’t bad. That’s because cholesterol performs important functions in your body. However, when you have too much LDL cholesterol, that’s when you can run into problems.

Excess LDL cholesterol contributes to plaque buildup (atherosclerosis) in your arteries. This plaque buildup may lead to:

This is why healthcare providers encourage you to have a healthy level of LDL cholesterol.

What is the LDL cholesterol normal range?

Most adults should keep their LDL below 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). If you have a history of atherosclerosis, your LDL should be below 70 mg/dL.

What is a bad level for LDL?

An LDL level above 100 mg/dL raises your risk of cardiovascular disease. Healthcare providers use the following categories to describe your LDL cholesterol level:

  • Normal: Below 100 mg/dL.
  • Near optimal: 100 – 129 mg/dL.
  • Borderline high: 130 – 159 mg/dL.
  • High: 160 – 189 mg/dL.
  • Very high: 190 mg/dL or higher.

Healthcare providers check your cholesterol levels through a simple blood test called a lipid panel. When you receive your results, it’s important to talk to your provider about what your cholesterol numbers mean. These include both your LDL and your HDL cholesterol. HDL is the “good cholesterol” that helps remove extra cholesterol from your blood.

Generally, healthcare providers encourage higher HDL cholesterol levels (ideally above 60) and lower LDL cholesterol levels to reduce your cardiovascular disease risk. If your LDL is too high and your HDL is too low, your provider may recommend lifestyle changes and/or medications to get your cholesterol numbers into the healthy range.

What causes high LDL cholesterol?

Many factors can raise your LDL level. The factors you have some control over include:

  • What you eat. Foods like fatty meats, full-fat dairy products, bakery and fast foods are harmful for your cholesterol levels. That’s because they contain high amounts of saturated fat and, in some cases, trans fat. These two types of fat raise your LDL cholesterol.
  • Your body weight. Having overweight/obesity can raise your LDL cholesterol.
  • Smoking or using tobacco products. Tobacco use (including smokeless tobacco and vaping) lowers your HDL level. You need a healthy amount of HDL cholesterol to get rid of extra LDL cholesterol from your blood. So, by reducing your HDL level, tobacco use leads to a raised LDL level.

Factors you can’t control include:

  • Age. As you get older, your cholesterol levels naturally go up.
  • Sex assigned at birth. People assigned female at birth (AFAB) typically have higher LDL levels after menopause.
  • Your genes. If your close biological family members have high cholesterol, you may face a higher risk, too.

What foods cause high LDL cholesterol?

Foods that contain high amounts of saturated fat are the biggest culprits in raising your LDL cholesterol. Such foods include:

  • Bakery items, like doughnuts, cookies and cake.
  • Full-fat dairy products, like whole milk, cheese and butter.
  • Red meats, like steak, ribs, pork chops and ground beef.
  • Processed meats, like bacon, hot dogs and sausage.
  • Fried foods, like French fries and fried chicken.

Infographic showing foods that are high in saturated fat, including bakery, full-fat dairy, red meats, processed meats and fried foods. These foods can raise your LDL cholesterol.

Limiting your intake of saturated fat can help you manage your LDL cholesterol.

How do I lower my LDL cholesterol?

There’s a lot you can do to lower your LDL cholesterol. For many people, starting with lifestyle changes can make a big difference. Here are some changes you can make:

  • Follow a heart-healthy diet. Research shows the Mediterranean Diet can lower your risk for cardiovascular disease. This diet encourages you to eat healthy fats (from sources like olive oil and nuts) and avoid unhealthy fats (like saturated fat).
  • Avoid tobacco use. If you smoke, vape or use any tobacco products, now is the time to quit. Ask your provider for resources to help.
  • Get more exercise. Aim for 30 minutes of aerobic exercise per day at least five days a week. Start slow (just five or 10 minutes at a time) and gradually work your way up. Talk to your healthcare provider before beginning a new exercise plan or making changes to your old routine.
  • Keep a weight that’s healthy for you. Talk to your provider about what your ideal weight range should be.
  • Find strategies to lower your stress. Being under stress for a long time may raise your LDL and reduce your HDL. Techniques like yoga or deep breathing exercises may help you manage stress in your daily life.

Your healthcare provider may also prescribe medication to lower your LDL cholesterol.

Foods that can lower your LDL cholesterol

Research shows that soluble fiber can lower your LDL cholesterol. This form of fiber (roughage) blocks absorption of cholesterol in your body. You should aim to consume 10 to 25 grams (g) per day. Talk to your healthcare provider or a dietitian about the amount that’s right for you.

The chart below lists some foods that you can add to your diet to increase your soluble fiber intake.

FoodServing sizeSoluble fiber content
Black beans3/4 cup5.4 g
Lima beans3/4 cup5.3 g
Navy beans3/4 cup3.3 g
Pinto beans3/4 cup3.2 g
Kidney beans3/4 cup2.6 - 3.0 g
Tofu3/4 cup2.8 g
Avocado1/2 fruit2.1 g
Chickpeas3/4 cup2.1 g
Brussels sprouts1/2 cup2 g
Sweet potato1/2 cup1.8 g
Turnips1/2 cup1.7 g
Asparagus1/2 cup1.7 g
Broccoli1/2 cup1.2 - 1.5 g
Oatmeal (cooked)3/4 cup1.4 g
Eggplant1/2 cup1.3 g
Carrots1/2 cup1.1 - 1.2 g
Apple1 medium1.0 g
Beets1/2 cup.8 g
Banana1 medium.7 g
Brown rice1/2 cup.5 g

Talking to a dietitian can help you learn new and creative ways to incorporate these foods into your daily meals.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

You need some cholesterol for your body to function properly. However, too much LDL (“bad”) cholesterol can lead to plaque buildup in your arteries and cause complications down the road. That’s why it’s important to work with your healthcare provider to keep your LDL levels in the normal range.

For many people, lifestyle changes can make a big difference. But if you make changes and your LDL is still high, you might feel frustrated or confused. Try not to blame yourself or feel disheartened. Many factors that affect your LDL (like age and heredity) are out of your control. Talk to your provider about the changes you’re making, and learn if medication is the right fit for you.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 10/27/2022.


  • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. What is Cholesterol? (https://www.eatright.org/health/wellness/heart-and-cardiovascular-health/what-is-cholesterol) Accessed 10/27/2022.
  • American Heart Association. HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides. (https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/cholesterol/hdl-good-ldl-bad-cholesterol-and-triglycerides) Accessed 10/27/2022.
  • Dietitians of Canada. Food Sources of Soluble Fibre. (https://carleton.ca/healthy-workplace/wp-content/uploads/soluble-fibre.pdf) Accessed 10/27/2022.
  • Heart UK. What is cholesterol? (https://www.heartuk.org.uk/cholesterol/what-is-cholesterol) Accessed 10/27/2022.
  • National Library of Medicine. Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know. (https://medlineplus.gov/cholesterollevelswhatyouneedtoknow.html) Accessed 10/27/2022.
  • U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. LDL and HDL Cholesterol: “Bad” and “Good” Cholesterol. (https://www.cdc.gov/cholesterol/ldl_hdl.htm) Accessed 10/27/2022.
  • U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Trans Fat. (https://www.fda.gov/food/food-additives-petitions/trans-fat) Accessed 10/27/2022.

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