Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious infection that is resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, including methicillin, from which it gets its name.
Once seen mostly in the health care setting, MRSA has more recently emerged as a threat in the community as well. In the community, most MRSA infections are skin infections. When MRSA develops in a health care setting, it causes life-threatening infections of the bloodstream, pneumonia, and infections where a surgical incision is made.
What is Staphylococcus aureus?
Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that commonly lives in the nostrils. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about one third of people carry staph bacteria in their nose, mostly without any harm. The number of people who get MRSA skin infections in the community is not known. Children can carry MRSA in the nose as well as in their groin area. The rate of MRSA carriage in children has increased in recent years and it is common for healthy adults and children to carry MRSA. In most cases, this does not cause any problems.
How is MRSA transmitted in the community?
MRSA can be transmitted during activities that involve touching or skin-to-skin contact such as in household settings, athletics (for example, wrestling and football) and day care. One way of getting MRSA is to make direct contact with a wound infected with MRSA. Also, if someone with a wound infected with MRSA wipes the wound with a towel or other item, the staph bacteria will spread to that item. Anyone who comes into contact with it risks getting MRSA.
Locker rooms, dorms, schools, and day care centers are especially prone areas for spread of MRSA. This is because there if close person-to-person contact in these settings. Sharing any items with someone who was recently in the hospital or other inpatient setting can also transmit MRSA if the hospitalized person came into contact with MRSA.
In a study of patients with MRSA skin infections who were seen in the emergency department, the authors found that the risk of community-acquired MRSA was higher in those who:
- used an antibiotic in the past month,
- had a history of MRSA infection, or
- had close contact with a person with a similar infection.
Others have found that one or more hospital admissions, a recent nursing home admission, or a chronic illness increased the risk.
What does a MRSA infection look like?
Many people who get a MRSA skin infection mistake it for a spider bite because it can appear as a dark center surrounded by a tender area. It often appears as a swollen red bump, similar to a pimple, with a rim of pus around it. The wound is painful. The person may develop a fever to go with the wound.
Why is a MRSA infection considered so serious?
MRSA has proven resistant to most of the antibiotics used to treat it. However, most individuals who develop MRSA infections do well and the infection is localized to the skin. Very rarely, the bacteria can spread to the bloodstream or to distant sites to cause sepsis, pneumonia, bone infection, and organ damage.
Most people in good health who get community-acquired MRSA will recover. Frequently, the infected wound may require incisions and drainage. An antibiotic is frequently prescribed that is active against MRSA. In such cases, it is important to take the full course of antibiotic prescribed.
People who get MRSA in the healthcare setting tend to have longer hospital stays and are more likely to be readmitted to the hospital than uninfected patients.
If I have any signs of a staph skin infection, what should I do?
See a doctor as soon as possible. Cover the infection with a bandage until you can be seen by a doctor.
How can I reduce my risk of acquiring MRSA?
Good hygiene is key:
- Wash your hands often.
- Shower immediately after you engage in activity that involves direct skin contact with others.
- Clean and cover any cuts or scrapes you get.
- Don’t share personal items.
How can I avoid spreading MRSA if I might have it?
See a doctor early if you suspect you have a skin infection. Do not try to drain a wound yourself because pus from an infected wound can contain MRSA. Keep any wound covered with a clean, dry bandage. Wash your hands often and don’t share personal items. Immediately wash any items that come into contact with the infected wound.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections Accessed 10/22/2013.
- Gorwitz RJ, Kruszon-Moran D, McAllister SK, et al. Changes in the prevalence of nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in the United States, 2001-2004. J Infect Dis 2008:197:1226-34).
- Salgado CD, Farr BM, Calfee DP. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a meta-analysis of prevalence and risk factors. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 36:131–139.
- Moran GJ, Krishnadasan A, Gorwitz RJ, et al; EMERGEncy ID Net Study Group. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections among patients in the emergency department. N Engl J Med 2006; 355:666–674.
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