Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy
What is toxoplasmosis?
Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii that can threaten the health of an unborn child. You can get the infection from handling soil or cat litter that contains cat feces infected with the parasite. You can also get it from eating undercooked meat from animals infected with the parasite or from uncooked foods that have come in contact with contaminated meat. If you have been infected with Toxoplasma once, you will usually not become infected again.
Symptoms and Causes
What are the symptoms of Toxoplasma?
Because most people with Toxoplasma have no symptoms, it may be difficult to know if you have been infected. When symptoms do appear, they can resemble the flu and include fever and swollen lymph glands.
Diagnosis and Tests
How can I find out if I have been infected with Toxoplasma?
A blood test is available that can tell whether you are currently infected with toxoplasma or if you have been infected in the past. Since this test is not routinely done, you may want to talk to your healthcare provider about having one before you become pregnant.
How can I tell if my unborn baby has been infected with Toxoplasma?
If you have maternal toxoplasmosis infection, there are several ways to check if your unborn child has been infected:
- The fluid around the fetus or the fetal blood can be tested for infection.
- About a third of infected babies have a problem that may be visible on an ultrasound.
- The baby’s blood can be tested after birth.
Management and Treatment
If I was infected with Toxoplasma before my pregnancy, is there a risk to my unborn baby?
With rare exception, women who have been infected at least 6 to 9 months before conception develop immunity to Toxoplasma and do not pass it on to their baby.
What can happen to my baby if I am infected with Toxoplasma during my pregnancy?
About one-half of women infected with Toxoplasma can transmit the infection across the placenta to the unborn baby. Infection early in the pregnancy is less likely to be transmitted to the baby than infection later in the pregnancy. However, an early infection is usually more severe than a later one. Most babies infected during pregnancy show no sign of toxoplasmosis when they are born, but many of them develop learning, visual, and hearing disabilities later in life.
Can Toxoplasma be treated during my pregnancy?
The Toxoplasma infection can be treated during pregnancy with antibiotic medication. The earlier the infection is identified and treated, the greater the chance of preventing infection of the unborn child. If the child has already been infected, treatment can make the disease less severe. The baby can also be treated in his or her first year of life.
What can I do to prevent Toxoplasma infection?
- Cook foods at safe temperatures and use a food thermometer to ensure that meat is cooked thoroughly.
- Peel or thoroughly wash fruits and vegetables before eating.
- Wash cutting boards, dishes, counters, utensils and hands with hot, soapy water after they have come in contact with raw foods.
- Wear gloves when gardening and during any contact with soil or sand because it might contain cat feces. Wash hands thoroughly after coming in contact with soil or sand.
- Avoid changing cat litter if possible. If you must do it, wear gloves and wash your hands thoroughly afterward. Change the litter box daily, keep your cat inside and do not handle stray or adopted cats. Do not feed your cat raw or undercooked meats.