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The shoulder has a very important role in many sports, such as baseball, swimming, volleyball, and tennis. In baseball, for example, maintaining a strong throwing arm requires a great deal of shoulder joint flexibility. However, constant use coupled with continual stretching and strain of the shoulder can result in problems, such as rotator cuff irritability.

Over time, this constant use can seriously affect the laxity (suppleness) of the shoulder that gives the athlete both necessary strength and flexibility.


  • Diagnostic treatment through physical examination and MRI.
  • Exercise programs that ensure that the supportive muscle structures of the shoulder are well-balanced and stable.
  • Methods of surgery that selectively shrink the shoulder capsule and ligamentous tissue.
  • Rehabilitation.

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