What is bone marrow concentrate (BMC)?

Bone marrow is the soft, spongy substance that fills the inner cavities of bones. It is where blood is produced.

Tiny spaces in the bone marrow hold blood and stem cells, the primitive cells that are able to grow into various types of blood cells. Under certain conditions, some of these stem cells can also create new tissue like bone, cartilage, fat and blood vessels.

BMC, also known as bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC), is a fluid containing cells taken from bone marrow.

How is bone marrow concentrate (BMC) obtained?

The first step in producing BMC is to collect bone marrow aspirate through a minimally invasive method that uses a needle to remove bone marrow from a large bone, such as the pelvic bone. The procedure is generally done under local anesthesia, sedation or with general anesthesia. The aspirate is then put through processing that uses a centrifuge. Bone marrow processing methods vary widely and can affect the number and quality of cells, especially in terms of useful stem and progenitor cells.

What are the risks involved with obtaining bone marrow concentrate?

Risks are rare, but may include:

  • Bleeding.
  • Infection.
  • Pain that continues after the procedure.

How is bone marrow concentrate (BMC) used to help repair or heal tissue?

Experts are still determining how BMC will work within the body (mechanism of action), as well as how well it will work (clinical efficacy). However, experts do believe that BMC decreases (modulates) inflammation and it can potentially help new tissue form.

BMC may:

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 03/18/2019.

References

  • American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Accessed 3/19/2019.Bone Marrow Aspiration. (http://legacy.aofas.org/footcaremd/treatments/Pages/Bone-Marrow-Aspirate-Concentrate.aspx)
  • Piuzzi NS, Mantripragada VP, Sumski A, Selvam S, Boehm C, Muschler GF. JBJS Rev. 2018 Nov;6(11):e4. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.RVW.18.00007. Accessed on 3/19/2019.Bone Marrow-Derived Cellular Therapies in Orthopaedics: Part I: Recommendations for Bone Marrow Aspiration Technique and Safety. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30461435)
  • Piuzzi, NS, Khlopas A, Newman JM, Ng M, Roche M, Husni ME, Spindler KP, Mont MA, Muschler G. J Knee Surg. 2018 Jan;31(1):22-26. doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1608844. Epub 2017 Nov 22. Review.Bone Marrow Cellular Therapies: Novel Therapy for Knee Osteoarthritis. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29166682)
  • Rodriguez-Fontan F, Piuzzi NS, Kraeutler MJ, Pascual-Garrido C. PM R. 2018 Dec;10(12):1353-1359. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2018.05.016. Epub 2018 May 29. Accessed 3/19/2019.Early Clinical Outcomes of Intra-Articular Injections of Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate for the Treatment of Early Osteoarthritis of the Hip and Knee: A Cohort Study. (https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1016/j.pmrj.2018.05.016)
  • Themistocleous GS, Chloros GD, Kyrantzoulis IM, et al. . Heliyon. 2018;4(10):e00871. Accessed on 3/19/2019.Effectiveness of a single intra-articular bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) injection in patients with grade 3 and 4 knee osteoarthritis (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6197942/)
  • McKenna RW, Riordan NH.. CellR4 2014; 2 (4): e1100. Accessed on 3/19/2019. Minimally Invasive Autologous Bone Marrow Concentrate Stem Cells in the Treatment of the Chronically Injured Achilles Tendon: A Case Report (https://www.cellr4.org/article/1100)
  • Holton J, Imam MA, Snow M. . Front Surg. 2016;3:33. Accessed on 3/19/2019.Bone Marrow Aspirate in the Treatment of Chondral Injuries (https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fsurg.2016.00033/full)

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