How is endometriosis diagnosed?

Endometriosis is diagnosed surgically by laparoscopy. During laparoscopy, a thin viewing tube (called a laparoscope) is passed through a small incision in the abdomen. A second incision may be made on the lower abdomen to provide an additional opening for surgical instruments. Using the laparoscope, your doctor can look directly at the outside of the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and nearby organs. The laparoscope can also be fitted with surgical devices for taking tissue samples or removing scar tissue.

What is an endometrioma?

An endometrioma is a mass of tissue (noncancerous cyst or tumor) that contains shreds of endometrial tissue. Endometriomas most frequently occur in the ovary, in a part of the peritoneum (sac around the internal organs) between the rectum and uterus, the wall (septum) between the rectum and vagina, and the outside of the uterus.