Function of White Blood Cells
What are white blood cells?
White blood cells, also known as leukocytes, are responsible for protecting your body from infection. As part of your immune system, white blood cells circulate in your blood and respond to injury or illness.
What do white blood cells do?
White blood cells protect your body against infection. As your white blood cells travel through your bloodstream and tissues, they locate the site of an infection and act as an army general to notify other white blood cells of their location to help defend your body from an attack of an unknown organism. Once your white blood cell army arrives, they fight the invader by producing antibody proteins to attach to the organism and destroy it.
Where are white blood cells located?
Your white blood cells are in your bloodstream and travel through blood vessel walls and tissues to locate the site of an infection.
What do white blood cells look like?
Contrary to their name, white blood cells are colorless but can appear as a very light purple to pink color when examined under a microscope and colored with dye. These extremely tiny cells have a round shape with a distinct center membrane (nucleus).
How big are white blood cells?
You can only see white blood cells under a microscope, as they are extremely small.
How many white blood cells are in my body?
White blood cells account for 1% of your blood. There are more red blood cells in your body than white blood cells.
How are white blood cells formed?
White blood cell formation occurs in the soft tissue inside of your bones (bone marrow). Two types of white blood cells (lymphocytes) grow in the thymus gland (T cells) and lymph nodes and spleen (B cells).
What are white blood cells made of?
White blood cells originate from cells that morph into other cells in the body (stem cell) within the soft tissue of your bones (bone marrow).
What are the types of white blood cells?
There are five types of white blood cells:
- Neutrophils: Help protect your body from infections by killing bacteria, fungi and foreign debris.
- Lymphocytes: Consist of T cells, natural killer cells and B cells to protect against viral infections and produce proteins to help you fight infection (antibodies).
- Eosinophils: Identify and destroy parasites, cancer cells and assists basophils with your allergic response.
- Basophils: Produces an allergic response like coughing, sneezing or a runny nose.
- Monocytes: Defend against infection by cleaning up damaged cells.
Conditions and Disorders
What are the common conditions and disorders that affect white blood cells?
If you have a low white blood cell count, you are likely to get infections (leukopenia). If your white blood cell count is too high (leukocytosis), you may have an infection or an underlying medical condition like leukemia, lymphoma or an immune disorder.
What are common signs or symptoms of white blood cell conditions?
Symptoms of white blood cell conditions, where you may have a count that is too high or too low include:
- Fever, body aches and chills.
- Wound that is red, swollen, oozes pus or won’t heal.
- Frequent infections.
- Persistent cough or difficulty breathing.
What is a normal white blood cell count?
It is normal for you to produce nearly 100 billion white blood cells each day. After completing a blood draw, a test counts your white blood cells, which equals number of cells per microliter of blood. The normal white blood cell count ranges between 4,000 and 11,000 cells per microliter.
What are common tests to check the number of white blood cells?
A complete blood count (CBC) test identifies information about the cells in your blood. A lab completes this test after a medical professional draws your blood and examines your white and red blood cell count.
White blood cells scan is a test to detect infection or abscesses in your body’s soft tissues. This test involves withdrawing your blood, separating the white blood cells from the sample, tagging them with a radioactive isotope, returning those white blood cells back into your body, then an imaging test will identify areas that show infection or abscess on your body.
What causes a low white blood cell count?
Causes of low white blood cell count include:
- Bone marrow failure (aplastic anemia).
- Bone marrow attacked by cancer cells (leukemia).
- Drug exposure (chemotherapy).
- Vitamin deficiency (B12).
A blood test with fewer than 4,000 cells per microliter of blood diagnoses low white blood cells.
What causes a high white blood cell count?
Causes of high white blood cell count include:
- Autoimmune disorders (lupus, rheumatoid arthritis).
- Viral infections (tuberculosis, mononucleosis).
- Bacterial infections (sepsis).
- Physical injury or stress.
- Leukemia or Hodgkins disease.
A blood test with more than 11,000 cells per microliter of blood diagnoses high white blood cells.
What are common treatments for white blood cell disorders?
Treatment for white blood cell disorders vary based on the diagnosis and severity of the condition. Treatment ranges from:
- Taking vitamins.
- Taking antibiotics.
- Surgery to replace or repair bone marrow.
- Blood transfusion.
- Stem cell transplant.
How do I take care of my white blood cells?
You can take care of your white blood cells by:
- Practicing good hygiene to prevent infection.
- Taking vitamins to boost your immune system.
- Treating medical conditions where white blood cell disorders are a side effect.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
White blood cells serve as your first line of defense against injury or illness. Keep your white blood cells healthy by taking vitamins to boost your immune system and practicing good hygiene to prevent infection. If you experience any symptoms like fever and chills, frequent infection, persistent cough or difficulty breathing, contact your healthcare provider to test if your white blood cell count is abnormal.
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