Dysarthria (difficulty speaking) and dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) can be severely limiting symptoms of Parkinson’s disease and can be helped by referral to a speech therapist. Until recently, traditional speech therapy had not provided sustained improvement. A new program called the Lee Silverman Voice Therapy Program has been developed, which has demonstrated significant value for patients with Parkinson’s disease. The patient should be referred to a speech therapist experienced in administering the Lee Silverman Voice Therapy Program.
Information tips for improving communication
As the muscles weaken in the voice box (larynx), throat (pharynx), roof of the mouth (soft palate) tongue, and lips, people with Parkinson’s disease might find it difficult to pronounce words clearly.
Some resulting speech impairments might be:
- Hoarse or strained voice
- Muffled or nasal-sounding voice
- Unclear or slurred speech
Speech-language therapists can help people with Parkinson’s disease maintain as many communication skills as possible. They also teach techniques that conserve energy, including non-verbal communication skills. Speech-language therapists are also available to:
- Recommend appropriate communication techniques to provide treatment that will aid in the success of daily activities.
- Treat all types of speech, language, and communication problems.
- Evaluate swallowing function and recommend changes as necessary.
Tips to maintain and enhance communication
- Choose an environment with reduced noise. It can be quite tiring to try to "talk over" the television or radio.
- Speak slowly.
- Be certain your listener can see your face. Look at the person while you are talking. A well-lit room enhances face-to-face conversation, increasing intelligibility.
- Use short phrases. Say one or two words, or syllables per breath.
- Over-articulate your speech by prolonging the vowels and exaggerating the consonants.
- Choose a comfortable posture and position that provide support during long and stressful conversations.
- Be aware that exercises intended to strengthen weakening muscles might be counter-productive. Always ask your speech-language therapist which exercises are right for you.
- Plan periods of vocal rest before planned conversations or phone calls. Know that fatigue significantly affects your speaking ability. Techniques that work in the morning might not work later in the day.
- If you are soft spoken and your voice has become low, consider using an amplifier.
- If you are on a respirator (with fully inflated cuffs), an electrolarynx or respiratory tube that provides an alternative air source might be used.
- If some people have difficulty understanding you, the following strategies might help:
- If you are able to write without difficulty, always carry a paper and pen as a backup so you can write down what you are trying to say.
- If writing is difficult, use an alphabet board to point or scan to the first letter of the words that are spoken.
- Spell words out loud or on an alphabet board if they are not understood.
- Establish the topic before speaking.
- Use telegraphic speech. Leave out unnecessary words to communicate the meaning of the topic.
- Non-verbal communication, also called augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), is a method of communicating without spoken words. When communication needs cannot be met through speech, the following techniques can be practiced by people with Parkinson’s disease:
- Residual speech (making the best use out of what speaking ability is left)
- Effective use of expressions and gestures
- Non-verbal communication can help people with speech difficulties actually speak better by:
- Reducing the frustration and stress of being unable to communicate
- Alleviating the pressure to speak
- Allowing the person to be more relaxed and come across in a more intelligible manner
Here’s a sample of the assistive devices that are available to help people with Parkinson’s disease communicate more clearly.
This is a dental apparatus that is similar to a retainer. It lifts the soft palate and stops air from escaping out of the nose during speech.
This is a personal amplifier that can be used to increase vocal loudness in soft-spoken people. The amplifier also decreases voice fatigue.
TTY telephone relay system
This is a telephone equipped with a keyboard so speech can be typed and read by a relay operator to the listener. Either the whole message can be typed or just the words that are not understood can be typed.
Notebooks and language boards can be used as alternative communication techniques.
High-technology electronic speech enhancers, communication devices
Computers with voice synthesizers and dedicated communication devices are available.
Patients who are interested in purchasing electronic communication aids should discuss this with a speech-language therapist before contacting sales representatives for these devices.
Here are some ways in which listeners can help people who have difficulty speaking and communicating:
- Talk to the person face-to-face only, and look at the person as he or she is speaking.
- Ask questions that require a "yes" or "no" answer.
- Repeat the part of the sentence that you understood. (For example, "You want me to go upstairs and get the what?")
- Ask the person to repeat what he or she said, or ask him or her to speak more slowly or spell out the words you did not understand.
Preparing for emergencies
- Use an intercom system or baby monitor to alert others that there is an emergency.
- Use bells or buzzers if you are not able to speak. Use "codes" that signify urgency. For example, a tinkling bell might mean, "I’d like company," while an air horn might mean there’s an emergency.
- Carry a portable phone that is equipped with pre-programmed numbers. Pre-program all of your telephones so they can automatically dial the necessary emergency number(s).
- Consider a "Life Call" button if you spend time alone.
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This information is provided by the Cleveland Clinic and is not intended to replace the medical advice of your doctor or health care provider. Please consult your health care provider for advice about a specific medical condition. This document was last reviewed on: 11/10/2011...#9392