Nutrition After Blood & Marrow Transplant
Losing interest in food after a long illness is to be expected. Some of the side effects you might have experienced while in the hospital may continue even after you go home. These side effects may include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, taste changes, and a sore or dry mouth. With these symptoms, it may be difficult for you to imagine eating high-calorie, nutrient-rich meals.
When you are unable to eat a well-balanced diet, we recommend you try over-the-counter nutrition supplements to meet your nutritional needs, unless otherwise instructed. However, it is important to check the labels for the specific vitamin, mineral or nutrient levels. They can vary from different manufacturers. Examples of nutrition supplements are Ensure®, Boost®, Resource®, Carnation Instant Breakfast®, Boost® bars and Boost® puddings. If you have diabetes, Glucerna® and Boost® Glucose Control are options.
Several discount stores and drug stores have nutritional supplements packaged under their private label. Please check with the dietician to determine if the particular product will meet your needs.
We recommend you take a daily multivitamin, after you are discharged. You can take children's chewable multivitamins twice a day if better tolerated. Excess doses of some vitamins and minerals might be unsafe at this time. For instance, it is important to choose vitamins that do not contain iron or herbs. Also, due to your numerous red blood cell transfusions, additional iron supplementation is unnecessary. Your body does not eliminate iron. If you have questions regarding your preferred multivitamin, bring your labeled vitamin bottle to your appointment for your doctor's approval.
Follow food safety guidelines when choosing any of the following foods:
Calcium and Phosphorus
Some of your medicines might deplete calcium, which is important for maintaining bone strength. When the staff reviews your medications and labs, they will inform you if this is likely to be a problem. Phosphorus is a mineral that helps to strengthen bones. Some transplant patients often need additional phosphorus. Unless you are following a special diet, we recommended you eat a diet high in calcium and phosphorus.
Dairy products high in calcium and phosphorus include:
- Creamer (pasteurized)
- Milk (skim, low-fat, whole)
- Natural cheese, processed cheese (pre-packaged)
- Cottage cheese, ricotta cheese
- Yogurt (regular, frozen or Greek)
- Pudding, custard
- Ice cream or ice milk
- Cream soup
- Evaporated milk
- Powdered milk
- Soy Milk
Non-dairy products high in calcium include:
- Calcium-enriched fruit juice
- Roasted almonds
- Dried peas and beans (cooked thoroughly)*
- Tofu (calcium enriched, cooked thoroughly)
- Greens (kale,collard, mustard, turnip*)
- Canned salmon with soft bones
- Bok Choy
- Calcium fortified cereal
- Bok choy
*a good source of phosphorus
Additional foods with significant amounts of phosphorus:
- Beef or veal (lean only)
- Cereal (bran)
- Cheese-American, cheddar, mozzarella, Swiss, Provolone
- Chicken (white meat)
- Cheese (ricotta)
- Cheese (cottage)
- Dried beans and peas
- Fish (Pollock, walleye, swordfish, cod, halibut, salmon, tuna)
- Nuts, most varieties
- Peanut/nut butters
- Pork loin
- Potato/baked with skin
- Seeds (sunflower or pumpkin)
- Soy milk
- Tuna, canned in water
- Veggie or soy patty
- Waffle or pancake
Your doctor might recommend calcium supplements such as Tums®, Oscal +D®, or Caltrate®. Calcium supplements with vitamin D are essential for those who require long-term steroid therapy, such as prednisone. Steroids cause bone loss, called osteoporosis. Taking these supplements, as well as exercising, can help minimize bone loss and prevent fractures. An appointment with a rheumatologist may be advised to monitor your bone density.
Potassium and magnesium
Antibiotics, diarrhea, and vomiting can cause electrolyte (mineral) imbalances. Even after your hospital discharge, it is common to require potassium and magnesium supplementation, which can be given by pill or intravenous infusion.
Potassium is an electrolyte (mineral) that maintains normal fluid balance, supports cell integrity, facilitates the making of protein, and assists in the transmission of nerve impulses and the contraction of the heart and other muscles.
Fruit sources of potassium include:
- Dates, figs
- Orange Juice
- Prune juice
Vegetables high in potassium include:
- Bamboo shoots
- Brussels sprouts
- Chick peas
- Dried beans
- Sweet potatoes
- Tomato juice
- V-8 juice
- White potatoes
Magnesium is also an electrolyte (mineral) that is involved in bone mineralization, building of protein, transmission of nerve impulses, and normal muscular contraction.
Significant sources of magnesium include:
- Leafy green vegetables
- Peanut butter
- Whole grain cereal
Sodium is an electrolyte essential for water regulation and electrical activities of the body, such as nerve impulse transmission and muscular contraction. Our diets rarely lack sodium.
A healthy person requires about 200 mg of sodium daily, but the average sodium intake is estimated to be 6,000 to 18,000 mg daily. Excessive sodium intake can lead to high blood pressure (hypertension) and fluid retention. Reduce your sodium intake to less than 2,300 mg each day.
Since allogeneic transplant recipients might already be experiencing hypertension or fluid retention/swelling (edema) caused by steroids —such as prednisone, tacrolimus (Prograf®), or cyclosporine (Neoral®) — it is crucial to avoid a diet high in sodium.
After your bone marrow transplant, you might have decreased liver function due to the effects of high-dose chemotherapy, graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), or metabolism of medicines. Since the liver metabolizes alcohol, avoid all alcoholic beverages. Alcohol can cause malnutrition by attacking the stomach lining, leading to malabsorption and excretion of many nutrients. Before drinking beer, wine, or other alcoholic beverages, ask your BMT doctor.