Vaginal Seeding


What is vaginal seeding?

Vaginal seeding is wiping a baby’s mouth, face and skin with its mother’s vaginal fluids right after a cesarean birth (C-section). Vaginal seeding is sometimes called microbirthing. There isn’t a lot of data about how safe or effective vaginal seeding is. Vaginal seeding can introduce bacteria or viruses that can make your baby sick. For that reason, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) doesn’t recommend it at this time outside of clinical trials.

Why is vaginal seeding done?

Some bacteria and other organisms (microbes) that live in our bodies and skin can help keep us healthy. Vaginal seeding exposes babies born by C-section to microbes that live inside their mother’s vagina.

What are microbes and the microbiome?

You have many organisms (microbes) that live on you and inside you. Microbes include bacteria, fungi and viruses. These microbes live:

  • On your skin and teeth.
  • In your genitals.
  • In your gut (gastrointestinal tract).

All these microbes in and on your body form your microbiome. Microbiome is the name for all the microbes that work together to help keep you healthy and fight disease.

Why is vaginal seeding done for babies born via C-section?

Babies get some of the microbes that form (seed) their microbiome from their mother. During vaginal delivery, vaginal fluids cover your baby. These fluids contain your vaginal bacteria (vaginal flora).

Babies born vaginally use microbes from their mother’s vagina (her vaginal microbiome) to help grow bacteria in their gut. These bacteria can help keep them healthy and fight disease.

If your baby is born by C-section, they don’t receive the vaginal flora during delivery. You may choose vaginal seeding to help your baby get these bacteria to help grow their microbiome.

Who invented vaginal seeding?

Researchers at New York University first wiped (swabbed) babies born by C-section with their mother’s vaginal fluids. They wanted to see if the babies would develop the same microbes that they would have developed after vaginal birth.

Do C-section babies have health issues?

Some research indicates an increased risk of obesity in children delivered by C-section. Research also shows that babies born by C-section have an increased risk of developing:

Some people think vaginal seeding could help reduce the risk that babies born by C-section will develop these conditions. Supporters believe that exposing babies to vaginal bacteria helps them grow a healthy microbiome that fights these conditions.

But researchers don’t know if the reason babies born by C-section have an increased risk for these conditions is because they have different microbiomes. Experts need to do more studies to learn more.

Do C-section babies need vaginal seeding to get a healthy microbiome?

If you have your baby by C-section, they won’t get the same microbes that they would if you delivered vaginally. But you don’t need to do vaginal seeding. There are other ways to give your baby healthy microbes, including:

Procedure Details

What happens before vaginal seeding?

About an hour before the C-section, your healthcare provider takes a piece of sterile cotton (gauze) and places it inside your vagina. During this time, fluid collects on the gauze.

What happens during C-section?

Before C-section begins, your healthcare provider removes the gauze and puts it in a sterile container. This container protects the vaginal fluids and microbes during C-section surgery.

Right after delivering the baby, your healthcare provider performs vaginal seeding.

What happens during vaginal seeding?

After your baby is born, your healthcare provider removes the gauze from the container. Then they use it to swab your baby’s:

  • Mouth.
  • Face.
  • Entire body.

What happens after vaginal seeding?

Vaginal seeding is a quick procedure. After your healthcare provider completes the swab, your baby receives newborn care in the hospital.

Risks / Benefits

What are the advantages of vaginal seeding?

Vaginal seeding may have some benefits. Researchers think vaginal seeding might reduce the risk of immune-related disorders in these babies. But they don’t know for sure.

Researchers also don’t know how long any benefits of vaginal seeding last after the baby is born.

What are the risks of vaginal seeding?

Not all microbes in your vagina are healthy for your baby. Sometimes, harmful bacteria can spread to the baby during vaginal delivery.

Vaginal seeding can also spread these harmful bacteria to your baby, including:

Recovery and Outlook

Should my baby have vaginal seeding?

Healthcare providers don’t know enough about the long-term benefits and risks of vaginal seeding to recommend it for babies. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, a national group of providers who care for women and babies, doesn’t recommend vaginal seeding.

But that could change in the future. Researchers are studying the practice in a clinical trial of babies to see if vaginal seeding improves:

  • Immune development.
  • Obesity rates (metabolic outcomes).
  • Microbiome development.

When to Call the Doctor

When should I contact my provider about vaginal seeding?

Healthcare providers don’t recommend vaginal seeding, but some mothers may choose to swab their babies on their own. If you swab your baby, let your provider know.

Make sure to watch for signs of infection. Tell your provider right away if your baby has any of these symptoms:

Frequently Asked Questions

How can I help my baby get healthy microbes without vaginal seeding?

If you’re having a C-section, plan to breastfeed your baby for the first six months. Healthy microbes live on the skin of your nipple.

Healthy microbes also live in your breast milk. These microbes can help seed your baby’s microbiome. There are many additional benefits of breastfeeding for you and your baby as well.

After delivery, you can also help your baby get healthy microbes through skin-to-skin contact. Shortly after birth, you or your partner can unwrap your baby for a cuddle while your baby adjusts to life in the outside world.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Vaginal seeding is a way to make sure babies born by C-section get the microbes they need to establish a healthy microbiome. But this practice has some risks because it may expose babies to harmful bacteria. Talk to your healthcare provider about the best ways to help your baby get healthy microbes without this risk.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 11/04/2021.


  • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Vaginal Seeding. ( Accessed 11/4/2021.
  • Callaway E. Scientists Swab C-section Babies With Mothers’ Microbes. ( Nature. 2016 Feb. Accessed 11/4/2021.
  • Vaginal Microbiome Seeding and Health Outcomes in Cesarean-delivered Neonates. ( Accessed 11/4/2021.
  • National Institutes of Health, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. What infections can affect pregnancy? ( Accessed 11/4/2021.
  • National Institutes of Health, National Human Genome Research Institute. The Human Microbiome Project: Extending the Definition of What Constitutes a Human. ( Access 11/4/2021.
  • Mueller NT, Bakacs E, Combellick J, Grigoryan Z, Dominguez-Bello MG. The infant microbiome development: mom matters. ( Trends Mol Med. 2015 Feb;21(2):109-117. Accessed 11/4/2021.
  • Mueller NT, Hourigan SK, Hoffman DE, et al. Bacterial Baptism: Scientific, Medical, and Regulatory Issues Raised by Vaginal Seeding of C-Section-Born-Babies. ( J Law Med Ethics. 2019 Dec;47(4):568-578. Accessed 11/4/2021.

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