Overview

Overview

Prostate Cancer is the most common cancer in men; about one in eight men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime. While a diagnosis of prostate cancer can be daunting, the experts at Cleveland Clinic Weston Hospital, Cleveland Clinic Martin Health and Cleveland Clinic Indian River Hospital are ready to help guide you through your treatment plan to achieve the best possible medical outcome.

Our physicians use a multidisciplinary team approach, working closely with cancer specialists, oncologists, radiologists, urologists, including the staff at Glickman Urological & Kidney Institute at the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio, to ensure we explore all medical and surgical options and develop the right treatment plan for you. This collaborative approach, coupled with state-of-the-art diagnostics and treatment services, provides our patients with comprehensive cancer care, close to home. In fact, it is this approach that earned the Cleveland Clinic Weston Hospital, Cleveland Clinic Martin Health and Cleveland Clinic Indian River Hospital’s cancer centers recognition and accreditation from the Commission on Cancer (CoC) of the American College of Surgeons.

Take the next step by scheduling an appointment online or by calling one of our facilities:

Cleveland Clinic Indian River Hospital – 877.463.2010

Cleveland Clinic Martin Health – 844.630.4968

Cleveland Clinic Weston Hospital – 877.463.2010

Virtual visits are also available.

Explore Our Prostate Cancer Resources

Risk Factors

Risk Factors

Age

The greatest risk factor for prostate cancer is age. More than 75 percent of all prostate cancers are diagnosed in men over 65.

Family History

Men whose relatives have had prostate cancer are considered to be at high risk. Having a father or brother with the disease doubles your risk for prostate cancer, according to the American Cancer Society. Therefore, screening for prostate cancer should begin at age 40 in these men.

To date, two genes have been identified that predispose a man to prostate cancer. Experts estimate that the hereditary form of prostate cancer accounts for just nine percent of all cases.

Race

Although the number of cases of prostate cancer declined among white American men, the incidence of the disease in black men and the mortality rate among black men is more than twice that of white men, according to the American Cancer Society.

African Americans have the highest incidence of prostate cancer and they are 30 to 50 percent more likely to get prostate cancer than any other race in the U.S. However, Japanese and African males living in their native countries have a low incidence of prostate cancer. Rates for these groups increase sharply when they immigrate to the U.S. African Americans are another group of men for whom prostate cancer screening should begin at age 40.

Experts have theorized that this suggests an environmental connection, possibly related to high-fat diets, less exposure to the sun, exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, infectious agents, or smoking.

Diet

Research also suggests high dietary fat may be a contributing factor. The disease is much more common in countries where meat and dairy products are dietary staples, compared with countries where the basic diet consists of rice, soybean products, and vegetables.

Male Hormones

High levels of male hormones called androgens may increase the risk of prostate cancer for some men, according to the American Cancer Society. Research is currently under way to determine whether medicines that lower androgen levels can lower the risk of prostate cancer.

Sedentary Lifestyle

You may be able to reduce your risk for prostate cancer by getting regular exercise and maintaining your optimal weight.

Testing & Diagnosis

Testing & Diagnosis

Screenings

Regular screening is the key to catching prostate cancer in its early stages. The American Cancer Society and the American Urological Association recommend that all men 50 and older receive a PSA screening, annually. In some cases, however, younger men who run a higher risk of developing the disease (African American men and those who have a family history of prostate cancer) may be encouraged to be tested regularly beginning at age 40. In many instances of prostate cancer, prostate surgery may be required. For more information on prostate cancer treatment or prevention, contact a Cleveland Clinic Florida urologist near you.

Physicians at our facilities screen patients for prostate cancer by performing a digital rectal exam, in which physicians check the prostate for abnormal areas, and by performing a blood test to evaluate the level of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA). PSA is a protein produced by the prostate gland and secreted into the blood. An elevated level could indicate that cancer is present; although other benign conditions such as enlarged or inflamed prostate also may cause elevated levels of PSA.

If cancer is suspected following these tests, a biopsy will most likely be performed. A tissue sample is taken with a small needle and examined under a microscope so doctors can confirm or rule out a cancer diagnosis.

PSA Test (Prostate-Specific Antigen) Test

The blood test, which is believed to detect a significant majority of prostate cancers and has the highest validity of a cancer screening to date, looks for increased levels of the prostate-specific antigen, a protein secreted by the prostate into the bloodstream. Elevated levels of the antigen may indicate the presence of prostate cancer. If cancer is suspected, a prostate biopsy will be performed. By removing a tissue sample from the tumor and examining it through a prostate biopsy, doctors can confirm or rule out a diagnosis of cancer and determine whether the disease has spread to other organs.

Prostate MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Test

The Imaging Institutes Section of Abdominal Imaging performs and interprets a prostate MRI test, also known as a prostate MR, at any one of our diagnostic centers. Prostate MR is advanced imaging technology that provides accurate, clear images of the prostate, which helps physicians accurately diagnose prostate cancer and determine the most effective treatment plan for each patient. This procedure allows radiologists to assess patients with biopsy-proven or suspected prostate cancer. Prostate MR is not right for everyone, your physician will determine what the best set of diagnostic tests are for your specific medical condition.

Targeted MR/Ultrasound Biopsy

Targeted MR/Ultrasound fuses pre-biopsy MR images of the prostate with ultrasound-guided biopsy images in real-time, for excellent delineation of the prostate and suspicious lesions. After a patient has undergone a prostate MRI, radiology partners utilize an advanced visualization system to quickly evaluate suspicious lesions. The ultrasound-guided biopsy system uses this critical diagnostic information to provide urologists with a targeted approach to prostate biopsy. The fusion of MR and ultrasound images gives urologists the ability to offer their patients an alternative to remaining in an uncertain state of diagnosis after a prostate exam.

Advantages of Prostate MR:

  • Identifies suspicious areas to direct transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided-biopsy in patients with elevated levels in PSA but no documented prostate cancer.
  • Assesses patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer for possibility of multifocal disease before considering focal therapy.
  • Assesses patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer for extension outside the prostate.
  • Assesses patients with suspected or biopsy-proven prostate cancer for pelvic extension into the lymph nodes, rectum or bladder.
  • Assesses patients for recurrence after prostate cancer therapy (cryotherapy or prostatectomy).

Disadvantages of Prostate MR:

  • Recent biopsy of the prostate (within eight weeks) can mask prostate cancer on an MR. Whenever possible patients should not undergo prostate MR after a recent biopsy.
  • In general, MR exams are not recommended in almost all patients with pacemakers, defibrillations and implanted ferromagnetic metallic foreign bodies. The presence of other implanted medical devices is evaluated on a case-by-case basis.
  • Patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (GFR less than 30 ml/min/1.73m2) are not recommended to have contrast-enhanced MRI exams. However, limited, non-contrast enhanced studies can be performed on these patients.
Treatments

Treatments

What We Treat In South Florida

Radiation Therapy
Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy X-rays, electron beams or radioactive isotopes to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation ionizes or damages the chromosomes in the cell so that they cannot multiply. Radiation can be produced and administered from a machine outside the body (external radiation) or implanted inside the body (internal radiation).

Brachytherapy is a type of internal radiation commonly used to treat prostate cancer. In this form of radiation therapy, radioactive pellets (radioisotopes) – each the size of a grain of rice – are implanted into the prostate through thin plastic tubes into the area where the cancer cells are found. Placement of the radioactive pellets inside the prostate minimizes the radioactive exposure of the surrounding normal tissues. The Brachytherapy procedure takes about one hour and is done on an outpatient basis.

Varian Edge Radiosurgery
Cleveland Clinic Florida offers Varian Edge radiosurgical suite which helps us deliver radiation therapy more accurately, precisely and quickly. Varian EdgeTM radiosurgical suite is only offered in a few centers around the world. Many patients only need to come for five outpatient treatments with the Varian EdgeTM, significantly fewer visits than required with traditional radiation technologies.

Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)
Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) uses sophisticated computer software to deliver different dose intensities of radiation directly to the tumor or to specific areas, minimizing exposure to surrounding healthy tissue.

For more information on Radiation Therapies, visit Radiation Oncology.

Minimally Invasive, Robotic-Assisted Prostatectomy
During this minimally invasive, surgical procedure, the surgeon uses a 3D robotic system with magnified video projection, to remove the prostate, partially or completely. By utilizing the 3D robotic system with an integrated fluorescence imaging capability, the surgeon operates with unparalleled precision, allowing a more accurate removal of the tumor and leaving the healthy tissue in place while reducing the risk of any cancer being left behind. The robotic-assisted laparoscopic technique allows surgeons to operate through small incisions rather than large ones, resulting in shorter recovery times, fewer complications and reduced hospital stays.

Open Prostatectomy
This traditional form of surgery for removing the prostate gland is done under general anesthesia. The surgeon makes a cut from below the navel to the pubic bone to access the prostate. The surgery may require several days in the hospital and recovery takes several weeks.

Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is the use of any one or combination of drugs that are aimed at killing cancer cells. Chemotherapy is typically reserved for advanced prostate cancer and prostate cancer that has not responded to other treatments. Treatments are administered at our leading-edge chemotherapy infusion suite, which is designed to include the family in a healing, comforting environment. Infusion treatments are delivered by chemotherapy-certified registered nurses who educate and support patients and their care partner throughout the entire procedure.

Cryotherapy
Cryotherapy involves freezing the prostate gland to temperatures the cancer cannot withstand. It is a minimally invasive procedure that is conducted as an outpatient procedure and occasionally requires an overnight stay in the hospital. Four to eight small needle-shaped temperature-monitoring probes are inserted into the prostate. Recovery takes a couple of days and there are minimal after effects.

Our Doctors

Our Doctors

Clinical Trials & Research

Clinical Trials & Research

Cleveland Clinic specialists have made enormous progress in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. Thanks to these improvements, more men are winning the fight against prostate cancer.

One of the most important advances is the ability to tailor treatment based on the risks and benefits for a specific patient, which could lead to better outcomes and fewer side effects. Cancer clinical trials offer patients important treatment options and access to the latest treatments and procedures resulting from cancer research. Participation in clinical trials also helps scientists and researchers advance the cause of preventing, diagnosing and treating cancer.

We can help you access hundreds of clinical trials across all specialty areas. Our new searchable online trials tool makes identifying treatment opportunities easier than ever.

Clinical Trials - Treatment Options

Clinical trials can not only expand your treatment options but give hope to others. Cleveland Clinic offers a wide range of clinical trials that have the potential to advance the cause of preventing, diagnosing and treating cancer.

Cancer Center Clinical Trials - Questions You Should Ask

Clinical trials (or research studies) help us create the medicine of tomorrow. They provide hope through offering testing of new drugs, new surgical techniques or other treatments before they are widely available.

Questions you should ask the doctor or study nurse about cancer clinical trials:

  • What is the purpose of the study?
  • What has previous research of this treatment shown?
  • What is likely to happen in my case with, or without the treatment?
  • Are there standard treatments for my type of cancer?
  • How does this study compare with standard treatment options?
  • What phase is this cancer clinical trial?
  • What are the possible short and long-term risks, side effects and benefits of the treatment?
  • What kinds of treatments, medical tests, or procedures will I have during the study? And how do they compare with what I would receive outside of the study?
  • How long will the study last? Will there be a follow-up after the study?
  • Where will my treatment take place? Will I have to be in the hospital?
  • How will I know the treatment is working?
  • How could the study affect my daily life?
  • Will my records be kept confidential?
  • Will my insurance pay for the treatments?
  • If I decide to withdraw from the study, will my care be affected? Will I need to change doctors?
Resources

Resources

Health Essentials

Find helpful posts from Cleveland Clinic’s Health Essentials site.
Discover the latest prostate cancer health and wellness tips.

Health Library

Learn more about prostate cancer symptoms, treatments and more by visiting our Cleveland Clinic Health Library.

Patient Stories

Hear the inspiring stories of real Cleveland Clinic patients fighting prostate cancer.

Podcasts

Cancer Advances

A Cleveland Clinic podcast for medical professionals exploring the latest innovative research and clinical advances in the field of oncology.

Support Services

Support Services are available at our cancer centers and serve as a vital resource for Cleveland Clinic Florida patients and community efforts in prevention, early detection, education, outreach and support.

Appointments & Locations

Appointments & Locations

Take the next step by scheduling an appointment online or by calling one of our facilities:

Cleveland Clinic Indian River Hospital – 877.463.2010

Cleveland Clinic Martin Health – 844.630.4968

Cleveland Clinic Weston Hospital – 877.463.2010

Virtual Visits

You can now stay connected to your healthcare team through virtual visits, using your smartphone, tablet or computer.

Why go virtual? It's an easy, convenient and secure way to see your provider face-to-face without having to leave home. This saves you travel time, parking fees and time spent in the waiting room — and you can also have a loved one or caregiver join you. If appropriate, you can also get a prescription sent to the pharmacy of your choice.

Many insurance companies cover the cost of virtual visits, so check with your insurance company ahead of time. Interested in getting started? Call your provider to find out what virtual visit options are available.

Locations