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Diseases & Conditions


An allergy is an abnormal or hypersensitive reaction to something. The treatment of allergies is also called Immunology. Some of the most common childhood allergies include plant pollens, bee stings, food allergies, environmental allergies and asthma. Our Pediatric Allergy department is actively involved in allergy research and testing, ensuring that our patients have access to the latest treatment options.

Birth Defects

A birth defect is any physical, mental, or biochemical abnormality present at birth. Some birth defects are visible (such as birth marks or misshaped limbs) and some are internal (such as inadequately developed organs, abnormal blood cells or abnormal body functions. Some are genetic, while others occur when external factors affect the child's development in the womb. Yet the causes of most birth defects (some 70 percent) are still unknown.

Blood Disorders

The body contains several different kinds of blood cells, including white blood cells (leukocytes), red blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders include anything that affects the various blood cells, including their shape, size, function. Sometimes bone problems can affect blood cells, since bone marrow is responsible for creating new blood cells. The treatment of blood disorders is also called Hematology.


Cancer occurs when cells in the body begin to grow too fast, to grow incorrectly, or attack healthy cells nearby. Our cancer physicians are all board-certified in pediatric hematology-oncology. Our cancer treatment programs are based on the international standards of the Children's Oncology Group (sponsored by the National Cancer Institute), striving to treat the whole person rather than just the disease.

Common Childhood Illnesses

Childhood endures plenty of coughs, sneezes and runny noses—with very few being serious. Common childhood illnesses include bacterial infections (middle ear infections) and viral infections such as Chickenpox and Rotavirus. Most common conditions can be treated with a visit to your pediatrician. Cleveland Clinic Children's physicians see patients in more than 20 locations across Northeast Ohio.


The skin is the body's largest organ. From diaper rash to adolescent acne, and from allergies to bacterial infections (cellulitis), children encounter many dermatology conditions. Our multidisciplinary teams can improve diagnoses and offer a variety of innovative treatment options.

Digestive Disorders

Healthy digestion requires the coordinated efforts of the stomach, gall bladder, intestines, liver and pancreas. A digestive disorder involves problems along this digestive tract. Our Pediatric Gastroenterology department treats more than 8,500 children per year and is one of the largest centers in the United States for treating childhood inflammatory bowel disease.

Ear, Nose & Throat

Conditions that affect the function of the ears, the nose and the throat often are the result of infections (ear infection, sore throat or sinusitis). Others can stem from an injury, a birth defect or a tumor. The treatment of ear, nose and throat conditions is also called Otolaryngology.

Emotions & Behaviors

Healthy behavioral development involves learning the social norms for acceptable behavior and the expression of emotions. Some emotional/behavioral conditions are present from birth, while others can appear late in an adolescent's life (eating disorders, depression). Many behavioral disorders have the potential to impact a child's ability to learn (ADHD), to focus on tasks, to accept challenges, and to cope with everyday stresses.


Endocrinology covers all disorders of the pancreas and the glands, including the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal and reproductive glands. This category includes Type-1 diabetes (also called juvenile diabetes) and Type-2 diabetes. Since all endocrine glands produce hormones, some diseases can affect growth & metabolism. Our cross-discipline team of pediatric endocrinology physicians, dietitians, nurses and social workers treat the whole child, focusing on treatments and disease management.

Eye Care

The medical field concerned with vision and eye care is called Ophthalmology. Some eye and vision problems are inherited (genetic eye disease), while some are caused by common infections (pink eye). Eyeglasses or lens implants may solve some problems (myopia), and surgery may be able to repair conditions such as cataracts or strabismus. Our pediatric ophthalmologists are based at the Cole Eye Institute, one of the few eye institutes in the world.


Gynecology is the medical field that treats conditions relating specifically to females, including a female's glands, urinary tract, and reproductive system. Many gynecological issues don't surface until puberty, but some (like infections and abnormal development) can occur at any age. Hormones, too, are a gynecological factor; especially during adolescence.


The medical field that treats the heart and its ability to circulate blood is called Cardiology. Our pediatric cardiologists and heart surgeons are among the most highly trained in the world. Our teams can detect many heart conditions, including irregular heartbeats, valve disorders and congenital defects, while a baby is still in the womb. Our surgeons routinely perform the most complex heart procedures on the tiniest patients, including artery transpositions and Tetralogy of Fallot.


Kidney disease affects the kidney's ability to remove liquid waste from the body. The treatment of kidney problems is also called Nephrology. Our Transplant Center has extensive experience with pediatric transplant patients and coordinates services with our dedicated pediatric dialysis unit.

Neurological Conditions

Neurology includes the brain, spinal cord and nerves. Any neurological abnormalities or damage often cause problems in other areas of the body, since the brain's message pathways have been compromised. Our pediatric neurology and neurosurgery was ranked No. 1 in Ohio and No. 3 nationally by U.S. News & World Report for 2012-13. Our pediatric neurosurgery services emphasize a multi-disciplinary approach to treatment, using the same core care team to treat a patient even into adulthood.


The body's bones, joints, and the muscles that operate them form the field of Orthopaedics. Sports injuries are also included in this field, through Cleveland Clinic’s Sports Health Program. Our orthopaedic physicians have access to the vast resources of Cleveland Clinic's Orthopaedic & Rheumatologic Institute and treat more than 15,000 children per year.


Pulmonary conditions affect the lungs and the respiratory tract, including asthma and sleep apnea. We provide coordinated treatment and integrated medical visits among our pulmonary physicians, allergists and otolaryngologists. Our pediatric pulmonology program was nationally ranked in U.S. News & World Report's 2012-13 edition of "Best Children’s Hospitals."


Rheumatology includes conditions that cause the inflammation of muscles, joints and soft tissue, such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and polyarteritis nodosa. Our Center for Pediatric Rheumatology often acts as a referral center, and has assisted patients in 34 states and 10 countries.