What are the effects of a traumatic brain injury (TBI)?

The effects of a TBI vary in scope from full recovery to severe disability. For those who suffer a more severe TBI, gradual improvements in function can continue for up to 10 years after the injury. The most common impairing injuries affect three main aspects of a patient's life:

  • Cognition: concentration, memory, judgment, mood, comprehension, and reasoning
  • Movement abilities: strength, coordination, balance
  • Sensation: tactile sensation and special sense, especially vision

Some patients with TBIs will experience behavioral effects, too, such as agitation, irritability, verbal or physical aggressiveness, anxiety, depression, and impulsivity. Occasionally, a TBI will result in seizure disorder (epilepsy).

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