An abdominal aortic aneurysm is an enlargement of the lower part of the aorta that extends through the abdominal area (at times, the upper portion of the aorta in the chest can be enlarged). The aorta is the main blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Like most arteries, the aorta is elastic, which allows it to be filled with blood under high pressure. An aneurysm develops when the wall of the artery becomes weakened and distended like a balloon. The analogy of a bubble in a garden hose would be appropriate in describing an aneurysm. Aneurysms usually are discovered before they produce symptoms, such as back pain, but like the weakened hose, they may rupture if they become too large. Since a ruptured aneurysm is extremely dangerous and can cause life-threatening bleeding, aneurysms are best corrected by an operation before this happens.
An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a major health risk that may not have related symptoms until a life-threatening event occurs, such as aneurysm rupture. An abdominal ultrasound is a preventive screening tool that can be used to identify an AAA so that prompt treatment can be provided prior to aneurysm rupture.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force screening guidelines
Currently, Medicare is offering a one-time, free abdominal ultrasound AAA screening to qualified senior citizens as part of its Welcome to Medicare physical. This physical must be conducted within the first 12 months of enrollment in Medicare. Men who have smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime qualify for the Medicare screening.
This screening recommendation is based on the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Recommendation Statement. January 2014. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, Md.
Additional screening guidelines
The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) and the Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology (SVMB) recommend abdominal ultrasound AAA screening for these patients:
Cleveland Clinic supports the SVS and SVMB screening recommendations for these patients who have a higher risk of developing an AAA. Coverage for abdominal AAA ultrasound screening may differ, depending on your insurance. Therefore, please contact your insurance provider for specific coverage options before scheduling this test.
Most aneurysms occur in the abdomen. Abdominal aortic aneurysms occur most frequently in people over age 60 and most commonly at a point in the aorta just below the level of the kidneys. Men are more commonly affected by aneurysms than women.
Most people are unaware that they have an aneurysm because in most cases, there are no symptoms. However, as aneurysms grow, symptoms may include:
A ruptured aneurysm usually produces sudden, severe pain and other symptoms such as loss of consciousness or shock, depending on the location of the aneurysm and the amount of bleeding. A ruptured aneurysm requires emergency treatment.
Most abdominal aneurysms are diagnosed during a routine physical examination or on X-ray when being tested for other health concerns.
Once an aneurysm is suspected, the following imaging tests may be used to determine size, location of the aneurysm, and treatment options:
Very large or symptomatic aneurysms require treatment. There are two types of surgical treatments for large aneurysms.
Open surgical repair
This involves the surgeon making an incision to access the abdominal aortic aneurysm. The diseased portion of the aorta is replaced with a graft that acts as a replacement blood vessel. Open surgical repair is a proven procedure that has a good track record and acceptable risks. But it also involves a long recovery period. Average hospital stay ranges from 5 to 8 days. The time until return to normal activity ranges from 6 weeks to 3 months. As with any operation, open surgical repair has a risk of complications. You will want to discuss them thoroughly with your doctor.
"Endovascular " means "inside or within a blood vessel"—and that is exactly how a small fabric tube that has metal stents attached to the fabric, called a stent-graft, is introduced into your body and moved into place. First, small incisions are made in each groin to get to arteries that carry blood from the aorta. The surgeon then moves the stent-graft up through these arteries until it is opened inside the diseased portion of aorta. The stent-graft reinforces the weakened part of the vessel from the inside and creates a new channel through which the blood flows, eliminating the risk of rupture. This procedure usually takes 1 to 3 hours and patients typically leave the hospital in 1 to 2 days. Return to normal activity ranges from 2 to 6 weeks. Like any medical procedure, endovascular repair has a risk of complications. It also involves regular routine follow-up visits with your doctor to evaluate the stent-graft. These regular follow-ups are extremely important and will require CT.
If you have a small aneurysm, your doctor will ask you to come back every 6 to 12 months for a CT or ultrasound to measure the size of your aneurysm and to review any other symptoms you may have. If surgery is recommended, you will need a comprehensive medical evaluation prior to your surgery. This may include a stress test and cardiology visit.
Doctors vary in quality due to differences in training and experience; hospitals differ in the number of services available. The more complex your medical problem, the greater these differences in quality become and the more they matter.
Clearly, the doctor and hospital that you choose for complex, specialized medical care will have a direct impact on how well you do. To help you make this choice, read more about our Sydell and Arnold Miller Family Heart & Vascular Institute outcomes.
The Aorta Center includes a multidisciplinary group of specialists in cardiology, cardiac surgery, vascular medicine, vascular surgery, cardiothoracic anesthesia, cardiovascular imaging, genetics, ophthalmology and orthopedic surgery. These clinicians are experts in genetic and diagnostic testing, medical management and surgical and endovascular procedures. They are dedicated to providing care to patients with all types of aortic disease.
Learn more about experts who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of aorta disease.
You may also use our MyConsult second opinion consultation using the Internet.
If you need more information, click here to contact us, chat online with a nurse or call the Miller Family Heart and Vascular Institute Resource & Information Nurse at 216.445.9288 or toll-free at 866.289.6911. We would be happy to help you.
Additional information about aortic aneurysm treatment options can be found at:
Diagnostic tests are used to diagnose your abnormal heartbeat and the most effective treatment method.
Our webchats and video chats give patients and visitors another opportunity to ask questions and interact with our physicians.
*A new browser window will open with this link. The inclusion of links to other websites does not imply any endorsement of the material on those websites nor any association with their operators.
Our outcomes speak for themselves. Please review our facts and figures and if you have any questions don’t hesitate to ask.
© Copyright 1995-2019 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation. All rights reserved.
This information is provided by the Cleveland Clinic and is not intended to replace the medical advice of your doctor or healthcare provider. Please consult your healthcare provider for advice about a specific medical condition. This document was last reviewed on: 05/10/2019