Established risk factors include:

  • Vaginal delivery
  • Advancing age
  • Obesity

Potential risk factors include:

  • Pregnancy (irrespective of mode of delivery)
  • Forceps delivery
  • Young age at first delivery
  • Prolonged second stage of labor (pushing)
  • Infant birthweight > 4,500 g
  • Shape or orientation of bony pelvis
  • Family history of pelvic organ prolapse
  • Race or ethnic origin
  • Occupations entailing heavy lifting
  • Constipation
  • Connective-tissue disorders
  • Previous hysterectomy
  • Selective estrogen-receptor modulators

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