Treatment Options

The following resources will help you learn more about treatment options and manage your heart failure:

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 05/01/2019.


  1. AHA. Heart Disease and Stroke Stats- 2009 Update. Dallas, Tx: AHA; 2009 *
  2. Redfield MM, Jacobsen SJ, Burnett JC Jr, Mahoney DW, Bailey KR, Rodeheffer RJ. Burden of systolic and diastolic ventricular dysfunction in the community: appreciating the scope of the heart failure epidemic. JAMA. 2003 Jan 8;289(2):194-202. *
  3. Levy D, Kenchaiah S, Larson MG, Benjamin EJ, Kupka MJ, Ho KK, Murabito JM, Vasan RS. Long-term trends in the incidence of and survival with heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2002 Oct 31;347(18):1397-402. * .
  4. Roger VL, Weston SA, Redfield MM, Hellermann-Homan JP, Killian J, Yawn BP, Jacobsen SJ. Trends in heart failure incidence and survival in a community-based population. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2004; 292: 344-350.
  5. Riedinger MS, Dracup KA, Brecht ML, Padilla G, Sarna L, Ganz PA. Quality of life in patients with heart failure: do gender differences exist? Heart and Lung. 2001; 30: 105-116.*
  6. Friedman MM. Gender differences in the health related quality of life of older adults with heart failure. Heart and Lung. 2003; 32:320-327.*
  7. Masoudi FA, Havranek EP, Smith G, Fish RH, Steiner JF, Ordin DL, Krumholz HM. Gender, age, and heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Jan 15;41(2):217-23.
  8. Vasan RS, Larson MG, Benjamin EJ, Evans JC, Reiss CK, Levy D. Congestive heart failure in subjects with normal versus reduced left ventricular ejection fraction: prevalence and mortality in a population-based cohort. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999 Jun;33(7):1948-55.
  9. Levy D, Larson MG, Vasan RS, Kannel WB, Ho KK. The progression from hypertension to congestive heart failure.
    JAMA. 1996; 275:1557-1562.
  10. Philbin EF, DiSalvo TG. Influence of race and gender on care process, resource use, and hospital-based outcomes in congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 1998 Jul 1;82(1):76-81.
  11. Jalal K. Ghali, MD; Ileana L. Piña, MD; Stephen S. Gottlieb, MD; Prakash C. Deedwania, MD; John C. Wikstrand, MD, PhD, on Behalf of the MERIT-HF Study Group. Metoprolol CR/XL in Female Patients With Heart Failure: Analysis of the Experience in Metoprolol Extended-Release Randomized Intervention Trial in Heart Failure (MERIT-HF). Circulation. 2002; 105: 1585-1591.*
  12. Lund LH, Mancini D. Heart failure in women. Med Clin North Am. 2004 Sep;88(5):1321-45.*
  13. Shindler DM, Kostis JB, Yusuf S, Quinones MA, Pitt B, Stewart D, Pinkett T, Ghali JK, Wilson AC. Diabetes mellitus, a predictor of morbidity and mortality in the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) Trials and Registry. Am J Cardiol. 1996; 77:1017-1020.*
  14. Perez EA. Doxorubicin and paclitaxel in the treatment of advanced breast cancer: efficacy and cardiac considerations. Cancer Invest. 2001; 19 (2): 155-164.*
  15. Pearson GD, Veille JC, Rahimtoola S, Hsia J, Oakley CM, Hosenpud JD, Ansari A, Baughman KL. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Office of Rare Diseases (National Institutes of Health) workshop recommendations and review. JAMA. 2000 Mar 1;283(9):1183-8.*
  16. Gottlieb SS, Khatta M, Friedmann E, Einbinder L, Katzen S, Baker B, Marshall J, Minshall S, Robinson S, Fisher ML, Potenza M, Sigler B, Baldwin C, Thomas SA. The influence of age, gender, and race on the prevalence of depression in heart failure patients. _Journal of the American College of Cardiology._2004; 43: 1542-1549.*
  17. Johnstone D, Limacher M, Rousseau M, Liang CS, Ekelund L, Herman M, Stewart D, Guillotte M, Bjerken G, Gaasch W, et al. Clinical characteristics of patients in studies of left ventricular dysfunction (SOLVD). The American Journal of Cardiology. 1992; 70: 894-900.*

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