As the heart beats, it pumps blood through a system of blood vessels, called the circulatory system. The vessels are flexible, hollow tubes that carry blood to every part of the body.
Veins are flexible, hollow tubes with flaps inside called valves. When your muscles contract, the valves open and allow blood to move through the veins. When your muscles relax, the valves close, keeping blood flowing in one direction through the veins. Veins become larger and larger as they get closer to the heart. The superior vena cava is the large vein that brings blood from the head and arms to the heart, and the inferior vena cava brings blood from the abdomen and legs into the heart.
If the valves inside your veins become damaged as a result of venous disease, the valves may not close completely, allowing blood to leak backward or flow in both directions.
Venous diseases include:
Which can be found in the legs, arms, veins of the internal organs (kidney, spleen, intestines, liver, pelvic organs), in the brain (cerebral vein thrombosis), in the kidneys (renal vein thrombosis), or in the lungs (pulmonary embolism). Get more information about blood clotting disorders.
Deep vein thrombosis
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot occurring in a deep vein (including upper extremity — arms — and lower extremity — legs. Even though deep vein thrombosis itself is not life-threatening, the blood clot has the potential to break free and travel through the bloodstream, where it can become lodged in the blood vessels of the lung (known as a pulmonary embolism). This can be a life-threatening condition.
Superficial venous thrombosis or phlebitis
Superficial venous thrombosis or phlebitis is a blood clot that develops in a vein close to the surface of the skin. These types of blood clots do not usually travel to the lungs unless they move from the superficial system into the deep venous system first. Typically, however, they cause pain.
Chronic venous insufficiency
Chronic venous insufficiency is characterized by pooling of blood, chronic leg swelling, increased pressure, increased pigmentation or discoloration of the skin, and leg ulcers known as venous stasis ulcer.
Varicose and spider veins
Varicose and spider veins are abnormal, dilated blood vessels caused by a weakening in the blood vessel wall.
Ulcers are caused by static blood flow or venous stasis ulcers. Ulcers are wounds or open sores that will not heal or keep returning. Venous stasis ulcers are located below the knee and are primarily found on the inner part of the leg, just above the ankle.
Several nonsurgical and surgical treatment options are available for each of these types of venous diseases. The goals of treatment are to reduce symptoms and reduce the risk of complications. Your health care provider will recommend the treatment option that is right for you. Before choosing any treatment, it is important to discuss the potential benefits, risks and side effects with your health care provider. You will receive specific guidelines to help you prepare for your procedure, as well as specific instructions to help your recovery.
Doctors vary in quality due to differences in training and experience; hospitals differ in the number of services available. The more complex your medical problem, the greater these differences in quality become and the more they matter.
Clearly, the doctor and hospital that you choose for complex, specialized medical care will have a direct impact on how well you do. To help you make this choice, please review our Miller Family Heart and Vascular Institute Outcomes.
Choosing a doctor to treat your vascular disease depends on where you are in your diagnosis and treatment. The following Heart and Vascular Institute Sections and Departments treat patients with all types of vascular disease, including blood clotting disorders:
Section of Vascular Medicine: for evaluation, medical management or interventional procedures to treat vascular disease. In addition, the Non-Invasive Laboratory includes state-of-the art computerized imaging equipment to assist in diagnosing vascular disease, without added discomfort to the patient. Call Vascular Medicine Appointments, toll-free 800-223-2273, extension 44420 or request an appointment online.
Department of Vascular Surgery: surgery evaluation for surgical treatment of vascular disease, including aorta, peripheral artery, and venous disease. Call Vascular Surgery Appointments, toll-free 800-223-2273, extension 44508 or request an appointment online.
You may also use our MyConsult second opinion consultation using the Internet.The Heart and Vascular Institute also has specialized centers and clinics to treat certain populations of patients:
Learn more about experts who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular and arterial disease.
If you need more information, click here to contact us, chat online with a nurse or call the Miller Family Heart and Vascular Institute Resource & Information Nurse at 216.445.9288 or toll-free at 866.289.6911. We would be happy to help you.
Additional information about vascular treatment options can be found at:
Diagnostic tests are used to diagnose your abnormal heartbeat and the most effective treatment method.
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Our outcomes speak for themselves. Please review our facts and figures and if you have any questions don’t hesitate to ask.
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This information is provided by the Cleveland Clinic and is not intended to replace the medical advice of your doctor or healthcare provider. Please consult your healthcare provider for advice about a specific medical condition. This document was last reviewed on: 04/23/2019