- American Urological Association. Bladder Exstrophy Accessed 1/20/2016.
- March of Dimes. Genital and urinary tract defects Accessed 1/20/2016.
- embryology.ch. Online course in embryology for medicine students developed by the universities of Fribourg, Lausanne and Bern (Switzerland) with the support of Swiss Virtual Campus. Module 21.6—Genital System Pathology. embryology.ch Accessed 1/20/2016.
- Cleveland Clinic. Congenital neurogenic bladder Accessed 1/20/2016.
- DeGuarte CM: Chapter 2 in Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Obstetrics & Gynecology, Eleventh Edition. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2013. accessmedicine.mhmedical.com Accessed 1/20/2016.
- Intersex Society of North America. Frequently Asked Questions Accessed 1/20/2016.
- Parkhouse HF, Barratt TM, Dillon MJ, Duffy PG, Fay J, Ransley PG, et al. Long-term Outcome of Boys with Posterior Urethral Valves. Br J Urol. 1988 Jul 1;62(1):59–62.
- King T, Coleman R, Parashar K. Mitrofanoff for Valve Bladder Syndrome: Effect on Urinary Tract and Renal Function. J Urol. 2014 May 1;191(5):1517–22.
This information is provided by the Cleveland Clinic and is not intended to replace the medical advice of your doctor or healthcare provider. Please consult your healthcare provider for advice about a specific medical condition.
This document was last reviewed on: 02/01/2016