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Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 02/01/2016.


  • American Urological Association. Bladder Exstrophy Accessed 1/20/2016.
  • March of Dimes. Genital and urinary tract defects Accessed 1/20/2016.
  • Online course in embryology for medicine students developed by the universities of Fribourg, Lausanne and Bern (Switzerland) with the support of Swiss Virtual Campus. Module 21.6—Genital System Pathology. Accessed 1/20/2016.
  • Cleveland Clinic. Congenital neurogenic bladder Accessed 1/20/2016.
  • DeGuarte CM: Chapter 2 in Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Obstetrics & Gynecology, Eleventh Edition. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2013. Accessed 1/20/2016.
  • Intersex Society of North America. Frequently Asked Questions Accessed 1/20/2016.
  • Parkhouse HF, Barratt TM, Dillon MJ, Duffy PG, Fay J, Ransley PG, et al. Long-term Outcome of Boys with Posterior Urethral Valves. Br J Urol. 1988 Jul 1;62(1):59–62.
  • King T, Coleman R, Parashar K. Mitrofanoff for Valve Bladder Syndrome: Effect on Urinary Tract and Renal Function. J Urol. 2014 May 1;191(5):1517–22.

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