- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Frostbite Accessed 3/6/2018.
- Biem J, Koehncke N, Classen D, Dosman J. Out of the cold: management of hypothermia and frostbite. CMAJ February 04, 2003 168 (3) 305-311. Accessed 3/6/2018.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Avoid, Spot, Treat Frostbite & Hypothermia. Accessed 3/6/2018.
- Ikäheimo TM, Junila J, Hirvonen J, Hassi J. Chapter 202. Frostbite and Other Localized Cold Injuries. In: Tintinalli JE, Stapczynski J, Ma O, Cline DM, Cydulka RK, Meckler GD, T. eds. Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide, 7e. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2011. library.ccf.org. Accessed 3/6/2018.
- Expertise of Cleveland Clinic staff, Vascular Medicine.
This information is provided by the Cleveland Clinic and is not intended to replace the medical advice of your doctor or healthcare provider. Please consult your healthcare provider for advice about a specific medical condition.
This document was last reviewed on: 11/07/2017