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Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 10/14/2019.


  • US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Erectile Dysfunction. Accessed 10/18/2019.
  • Urology Care Foundation. What is Erectile Dysfunction? Accessed 10/18/2019.
  • American Academy of Family Physicians. Diagnostic Evaluation of Erectile Dysfunction. Accessed 10/18/2019.
  • McVary KT. Chapter 48. Sexual Dysfunction. In: Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson J, Loscalzo J. eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18e. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012.

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