Red light therapy (RLT) is a treatment that uses low wavelength red light to reportedly improve your skin’s appearance, such as reducing wrinkles, scars, redness and acne. It’s also touted to treat other medical conditions.
To date, there’s a lot of ongoing research, publication of small studies and a much discussion on the internet about the effectiveness of red light therapy for all types of health uses. Results of some studies do show some promise, but the full effectiveness of red light therapy has yet to be determined.
Other names you might hear to describe red light therapy include:
NASA originally began experimenting with red light therapy on plant growth in space and then to help heal wounds in astronauts. Like many developments, other potential uses began to be investigated.
In fact, red light therapy is already widely medically accepted in its use in photodynamic therapy. In this therapy, low-power red laser light is used to activate a photosensitizer drug. The interaction creates a chemical reaction that destroys cells. It’s used to treat some skin conditions, including skin cancer and psoriasis, acne and warts and other types of cancer.
Now, RLT is being investigated (or already in use) for treating a wide array of health conditions. What’s confusing — and controversial — is the effectiveness of the treatment for the purposes it’s being promoted.
Red light therapy is thought to work by acting on the “power plant” in your body’s cells called mitochondria. With more energy, other cells can do their work more efficiently, such as repairing skin, boosting new cell growth and enhancing skin rejuvenation. More specifically, certain cells absorb light wavelengths and are stimulated to work.
Red light therapy may work in skin health to:
Red light therapy is promoted as a treatment for some common skin conditions, including to:
Most experts say that they don’t know yet if RLT is effective for all its claimed uses. Most say that the studies published so far show some potential for certain conditions, but that more studies need to be conducted. Red light therapy is still an emerging treatment that’s generating growing interest. But at this point in time, there’s not enough evidence to support most uses.
The gold standard of studies to determine if a product is effective is a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. This means that a certain number of people with the same range of characteristics (age, weight, race, gender, etc.) get either the study treatment or a placebo (fake or “sham” treatment) for treatment of the same condition. Some studies also include a comparison to another commonly used treatment. Results can then be compared between the emerging treatment versus no treatment (the placebo group) or versus a “current standard” treatment.
Many of the published studies using RLT included only a small number of people, didn’t include a placebo group, weren’t conducted in humans (animal studies) or were limited to cell tissue itself. Most researchers say results so far look promising, but that more quality studies with larger numbers of people are needed.
Red light therapy appears to be safe and is not associated with any side effects, at least if used short-term and as directed. This therapy is not toxic, not invasive and not as harsh as some topical skin treatments. Unlike the cancer-causing ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun or tanning booths, RLT doesn’t use this type of light.
However, if products are misused — perhaps used too often or not according to directions — there’s a chance your skin or eyes (if not protected) could be damaged. The long-term safety of devices that use red light therapy is not yet known.
Your safest option is to see a dermatologist or qualified, trained, cosmetic therapist. A dermatologist can make sure your skin condition is what you think it is and can discuss the merits of red light therapy and other treatment options.
You’ll find many red light therapy products if you search on the internet. While these products are generally safe to use, they may use a lower wavelength frequency (meaning they’re less powerful) than devices that may be used by dermatologists or other trained skin professionals. You may not get the results you hope for.
If you do choose to purchase a red light therapy device, make sure to shield your eyes for protection, follow all directions and take good care of the device.
In addition to medical office-based use and at-home use with a purchased device, you may see RLT being promoted at beauty spas and salons, saunas, tanning salons, gyms and wellness centers. Be cautious of who is supplying and where you are receiving treatment. It’s always best to check in with a medical professional about the best options to treat your skin condition or issue.
Other potential medical uses being investigated include:
Lots of other uses are being touted on the internet. There’s no scientific evidence to support red light therapy use in weight loss, cancer, cellulite removal or mental health concerns like depression and seasonal affective disorder (SAD).
There are a lot of variables to consider when thinking about red light therapy:
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Red light therapy is being promoted as a treatment for some common skin conditions. It’s still an emerging therapy but holds a lot of promise. If you’re interested in RLT treatment, it’s best to first discuss this with your healthcare provider or dermatologist. Your skin professional will examine your skin first and then confirm a diagnosis. Then, you’ll work together to discuss treatment options that'll achieve your desired result. Options may or may not include red light therapy. Never hesitate to ask your healthcare provider about treatment options — including if you have an interest in a particular therapy, if it’s appropriate to use for your skin condition and if it’s safe and effective.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 12/01/2021.