Organ donation is the process of surgically removing an organ or tissue from one person (the organ donor) and placing it into another person (the recipient). Transplantation is necessary because the recipient’s organ has failed or has been damaged by disease or injury.
Organ transplantation is one of the great advances in modern medicine. Unfortunately, the need for organ donors is much greater than the number of people who actually donate. Every day in the United States, 21 people die waiting for an organ and more than 120,048 (www.unos.org, Nov. 1, 2016) men, women, and children await life-saving organ transplants.
Organs and tissues that can be transplanted include:
People of all ages should consider themselves potential donors. When a person dies, he or she is evaluated for donor suitability based on their medical history and age. The Organ Procurement Agency determines medical suitability for donation.
Individuals who wish to be organ donors should complete the following steps:
Not at all, your decision to donate does not affect the quality of the medical care you will receive.
There is no cost to the donor’s family or estate for the donation of organs, tissue, or eyes. Funeral costs remain the responsibility of the family.
The recovery of organs, tissue, and eyes is a surgical procedure performed by trained medical professionals. Generally, the family may still have a traditional funeral service
If you need a transplant, you need to get on the national waiting list. To get on the list, you need to visit a transplant hospital. To find a transplant hospital near you, visit the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) website (www.unos.org). Every transplant hospital in the United States is a UNOS member.
The transplant hospital's doctors will examine you and decide if you are a good transplant candidate. In addition to criteria developed for some organ types by UNOS, each transplant hospital has its own criteria for accepting candidates for transplant.
If the hospital's transplant team determines that you are a good transplant candidate, they will add you to the national waiting list. You can get on the waiting list at more than one transplant hospital, and UNOS policies do permit "multiple listing." However, be sure to check each transplant hospital's guidelines about who will be the primary care provider.
Next, you wait. There's no way to know how long you will wait to receive a donor organ. Your name will be added to the pool of names. When an organ becomes available, all the patients in the pool are assessed to determine compatibility.
UNOS maintains the national Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN). Through the UNOS Organ Center, organ donors are matched to waiting recipients 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.
When an organ becomes available, the local organ procurement organization sends medical and genetic information to UNOS. UNOS then generates a list of potential recipients, based on such factors as:
The organ is offered first to the transplant center with the candidate who is the best match. The transplant team decides if it will accept or refuse the organ based on established medical criteria and other factors, including staff and patient availability and organ transportation.
If the transplant center refuses the organ, the transplant center of the next patient on the list is contacted and the process continues until the organ is placed. Organs are distributed locally first; if no match is found, they are offered regionally and then nationally.
A living donation, such as the donation of one healthy kidney or a segment of a healthy liver from a living human being to another, is arranged though the individual transplant centers according to criteria they have in place. An Independent Donor Advocate will represent the interests and well-being of the potential living donor.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
American Heart Association
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 12/13/2016.