What is chronic pain?
Chronic pain is pain that continues beyond the expected period of healing for an illness or injury. In chronic pain, signals of pain remain active in the nervous system for weeks, months, or years.
What are the effects of chronic pain?
Chronic pain can lead to a chronic stress reaction involving an increase in blood pressure and heart rate. This stress reaction can contribute to adverse health effects such as decreased ability to fight off illnesses and diseases. It also can increase the risk for conditions such as heart disease. Chronic pain’s physical effects include tense muscles, limited ability to move about, lack of energy and changes in appetite. Emotional effects include depression, anger, anxiety, and fear of re-injury. Such fears may slow down a person’s ability to return to his/her every day activities or leisure activities.
How is chronic pain treated?
The ideal treatment for chronic pain is a broad approach that addresses a person’s physical, emotional, and mental needs. Successful treatment requires choosing a life-long plan of wellness that might include:
- Doctor services
- Physical therapy
- Psychological treatments
- Occupational therapy
What are some self-management tips for a person living with chronic pain?
- Learn how to relax through deep breathing and other stress management techniques.
- Set achievable goals and don't overdo it on good days. Learn to pace yourself.
- Focus on positive thoughts.
- Set a daily schedule that includes time for rest, exercise, and relaxation.
- Join a chronic pain support group and/or find the nearest meeting for the American Pain Society.
- Know your medicines, including expected benefits and side effects. When costs exceed benefits, ask your doctor if there’s a better choice. A medicine is working if it helps you have a normal mood and activity level. If the medicine decreases your desire or ability to be active, ask your doctor about other choices. Take all medicines as prescribed; but don’t hesitate to ask questions. Ask if the medicine prescribed is to treat symptoms or to manage an underlying disease.
- Decrease or eliminate alcohol consumption. Pain often disrupts sleep and alcohol can further disrupt the sleep cycle.
- Quit smoking. Cigarettes can interfere with healing and are a risk factor for developing many diseases, including degenerative disc disease, which is a leading cause of low back pain.
The management of chronic pain requires that all aspects of an individual’s physical and emotional health be considered. When chronic pain is managed effectively, a person can return to a more productive and fulfilling lifestyle.
- American Osteopathic Association. Pain, Pain, Go Away Accessed 10/31/2013.
- Rathmell JP, Fields, HL. Chapter 11. Pain: Pathophysiology and Management. In: Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 18th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012.
- Ferrell BA, Charette SL. Chapter 30. Pain Management. In: Halter JB, Ouslander JG, Tinetti ME, et al. Hazzard’s Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology. 6th ed. New York:McGraw-Hill; 2009.
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This information is provided by the Cleveland Clinic and is not intended to replace the medical advice of your doctor or health care provider. Please consult your health care provider for advice about a specific medical condition. This document was last reviewed on: 10/31/2013...#11977